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RISS 처음 방문이세요?

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RISS 처음 방문이세요?

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RISS란?

RISS 개요

RISS(Research Information Sharing Service)는 전국 대학이 생산하고 보유하며 구독하는 학술자원을 공동으로 이용할 수 있도록 개방된 대국민 서비스입니다.

우리의 목표

RISS는 다음과 같은 목표를 가지고 서비스를 운영하고 있습니다.

  • - 국가학술연구정보 공유 시스템 구축을 통한 국가적 연구 경쟁력 강화
  • - 인적자원의 개발을 통한 차세대 산업동력 제고

RISS 자료

RISS에서는 다음과 같은 자료를 이용할 수 있습니다.

  • 2,291,160학위논문

  • 1,038,190음성논문

  • 6,304,375국내학술논문

  • 62,608,654해외학술논문

  • 184,584학술지

  • 12,523,772단행본

  • 167,166연구보고서 등

주제별 최신 인기논문

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RISS 자료 유형별 이용방법
자료유형명 안내
학위논문 학위취득을 위하여 제출된 석•박사 학위논문
학술논문 학술지에 투고된 논문
학술지 연구자의 학술논문을 게재한 잡지
단행본 한 권 한 권이 단독으로 간행되는 서적
연구보고서 연구결과를 보고하기 위해 제출하는 문서

1. 학위논문 : 원문보기 무료 이용

원문을 제공하지 않는 경우 복사신청

RISS 자료 유형별 이용방법-학위논문 RISS 자료 유형별 이용방법-학위논문

2. 국내 학술논문

무료, 유료, 기관내무료 이용

  • 1)   무료
    RISS 자료 유형별 이용방법-국내 학술논문(무료)
  • 2)   유료
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3. 해외 학술논문

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4. 학술지

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RISS 자료 유형별 이용방법-학술지 RISS 자료 유형별 이용방법-학술지

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RISS 자료 유형별 이용방법-단행본

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RISS 자료 유형별 이용방법-연구보고서

복사/대출 이용방법

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Information technology for management : improving quality and productivity

저자 : Turban, Efraim ,McLean, Ephraim R ,Wetherbe, James C

발행사항 : New York : Wiley, c1996

발행연도 : 1996

작성언어 : 영어

주제어 : Management information systems

DDC : 658.4/038/011 판사항(20)

자료형태 : 도서

발행국(도시) : New York(State)

서명/저자사항 : Information technology for management : improving quality and productivity / Efraim Turban, Ephraim McLean, James Wetherbe.

형태사항 : 1 v. (various pagings) : col. ill. ; 29 cm.

일반주기명 : Includes bibliographical references and indexes.

소장기관 :

  • 가천대학교 중앙도서관
  • 가톨릭관동대학교 중앙도서관
  • 가톨릭대학교 성심교정도서관(중앙)
  • 경기대학교 중앙도서관(수원캠퍼스)
  • 경남대학교 중앙도서관
  • 경일대학교 도서관
  • 계명대학교 동산도서관
  • 국립중앙도서관
  • 금오공과대학교 도서관
  • 남서울대학교 도서관
  • 대구가톨릭대학교 중앙도서관
  • 대구대학교 창파도서관
  • 부경대학교 도서관
  • 부산외국어대학교 도서관
  • 상명대학교 서울캠퍼스 도서관
  • 서강대학교 도서관
  • 서울과학기술대학교 도서관
  • 서원대학교 도서관
  • 성공회대학교 도서관
  • 성균관대학교 삼성학술정보관
  • 세종대학교 도서관
  • 숭실대학교 도서관
  • 아주대학교 도서관
  • 연세대학교 학술문화처 도서관
  • 영남대학교 도서관
  • 울산대학교 도서관
  • 이화여자대학교 도서관
  • 인하대학교 도서관
  • 전주대학교 도서관
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  • 목차
    • CONTENTS
    • PART Ⅰ FOUNDATIONS OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY = 1
    • 1 INFORMATION SYSTEMS : CONCEPTS, TRENDS, AND ISSUES = 3
    • CHAPTER OUTLINE = 3
    • 1.1 7-ELEVEN JAPAN : GIVING CUSTOMERS A VOICE = 4
    • 1.2 INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND THE BUSINESS = 5
    • 1.3 INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY = 7
    • What is an Information System? = 7
    • What is a Computer-Based Information System? = 7
    • What is Information Technology? = 9
    • 1.4 INFORMATION SYSTEMS AT WORK WORLDWIDE = 9
    • Crime Fighting Information Technology = 9
    • Tracking UPS Packages with Pen Computers = 10
    • Mercy Hospital Provides Patient-Focused Care = 10
    • Waubonsee Community College : A New Way to Learn = l1
    • The 1990 Goodwill Games : An Information System for Two Weeks = 11
    • Computerized Total Quality Management at Florida Power and Light = 11
    • Sharing Information, Telecommuting, and Systems Integration Provide High Profit = 12
    • 1.5 BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT PRESSURES = 12
    • Ethical Issues = 15
    • 1.6 ORGANIZATIONS AND MANAGEMENT CHANGES = 16
    • Decreased Budgets of Public Organizations = 17
    • Business Processes Reengineering = 17
    • Improvement Programs : TQM, JIT, and Others = 17
    • 1.7 TRENDS IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY = 19
    • Cost-Performance : Improvement by a Factor of at Least 100 = 20
    • Information Superhighways = 20
    • Networked Computers and Client/Server Architecture = 21
    • Graphical and Other User-Friendly Interfaces Will Dominate PCs = 21
    • Storage and Memories = 22
    • Multimedia = 22
    • Object-Oriented Environment = 22
    • Emerging Technologies = 22
    • Compactness and Portability = 22
    • 1.8 LEARNING ABOUT INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY = 22
    • Unsuccessful Systems = 23
    • Employment Opportunities in Information Technology = 24
    • 1.9 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AS AN ENABLER AND THE PLAN OF THE BOOK = 25
    • MANAGERIAL ISSUES = 26
    • KEY TERMS/CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS = 26
    • QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW/QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION/EXERCISES/GROUP ASSIGNMENT = 27
    • MINICASE 1 : COMPUTERS IN MID-SIZED BUSINESS : A CENTRAL VERMONT SKI RESORT = 28
    • MINICASE 2 : WHO NEEDS AN INFORMATION SYSTEM? = 29
    • REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY = 30
    • APPENDIX A : SYSTEMS = 30
    • APPENDIX B : KEY FINDINGS OF THE M.I.T. REPORT ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY = 32
    • 2 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES : CONCEPTS AND ARCHITECTURE = 34
    • CHAPTER OUTLINE = 34
    • 2.1 ENTERPRISE COMPUTING AT PANHANDLE : IMPROVED CUSTOMER SERVICE AND COMPETITIVENESS = 35
    • 2.2 INFORMATION SYSTEMS CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS = 36
    • 2.3 CLASSIFICATION OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS = 37
    • Classification According to Organizational Levels = 37
    • Classification According to Major Functional Areas = 38
    • Classification According to the Support Provided by the System = 39
    • Classification According to the Information System Architecture = 39
    • 2.4 EVOLUTION OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS = 40
    • 2.5 TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS = 45
    • 2.6 THE VALUE CHAIN MODEL = 47
    • Value Chain Analysis Model = 48
    • 2.7 MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS = 49
    • What Is a MIS? = 49
    • 2.8 GENERAL SUPPORT SYSTEMS = 50
    • 2.9 OPERATIONAL, MANAGERIAL, AND STRATEGIC SYSTEMS = 50
    • Operational Systems = 51
    • Managerial Systems = 51
    • Strategic Systems = 52
    • Relationship of Support Systems to Managerial Levels and Their Decisions = 52
    • 2.10 INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE AND INFRASTRUCTURE = 53
    • Content of the Information Architecture = 55
    • Types of Information Architectures = 55
    • 2.11 LEGACY SYSTEMS = 56
    • 2.12 NEW ARCHITECTURES : CLIENT/SERVER ARCHITECTURE AND ENTERPRISE-WIDE COMPUTING = 56
    • Client/Server Architecture = 57
    • Enterprise-Wide Client/Server Architecture = 57
    • 2.13 INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AS A FIELD : A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK = 58
    • Introduction = 58
    • An Input-Process-Output Model for Defining the Field = 59
    • Outputs and their Value = 59
    • The Inputs to Information Management = 60
    • The Processes of Information Management = 60
    • Knowledge Requirements for Information Management = 62
    • Information Management as an Organization Function = 63
    • MANAGERIAL ISSUES = 64
    • From Legacy Systems to Client/Server = 64
    • How Much Infrastructure? = 65
    • KEY TERMS/CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS = 65
    • QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW/QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION/EXERCISES/GROUP ASSIGNMENT = 66
    • MINICASE 1 : INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HELPS ATLANTIC ELECTRIC COMPANY TO SURVIVE = 67
    • REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY = 67
    • 3 STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR BUSINESS REENGINEERING = 69
    • CHAPTER OUTLINE = 69
    • 3.1 CATERPILLAR COMPANY FENDS OFF JAPANESE COMPETITION = 70
    • 3.2 WHAT IS A STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEM? = 71
    • Aspects of Strategic Management = 71
    • Competitive Advantage vs. Strategic Advantage = 73
    • 3.3 COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES OF STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS = 75
    • 3.4 STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS FRAMEWORKS = 76
    • 3.5 HOW INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AFFECTS COMPETITION : PORTER'S VALUE CHAIN MODEL = 76
    • 3.6 ANALYZING COMPETITIVENESS : PORTER'S COMPETITIVE FORCES MODEL = 79
    • 3.7 ILLUSTRATIVE STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS FRAMEWORKS = 81
    • Wiseman and MacMillan : Strategic Thrust-Strategic Target = 81
    • Bakos and Treacy : Bargaining Power and Comparative Efficiency = 82
    • 3.8 A FRAMEWORK FOR MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS = 83
    • The Ives, Jarvenpaa, and Mason Global Business Drivers Framework = 83
    • 3.9 REPRESENTATIVE STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS = 84
    • Outward Systems = 85
    • Inward Systems = 86
    • Conclusion = 87
    • 3.10 INCREMENTAL IMPROVEMENTS AND BUSINESS REENGINEERING = 87
    • 3.11 WHAT IS BUSINESS REENGINEERING? = 88
    • 3.12 PRINCIPLES OF BUSINESS REENGINEERING? = 90
    • The Product-Process Change Framework = 90
    • Characteristics of Business Processes Reengineering = 90
    • Changes in Work Practices = 91
    • 3.13 THE ENABLING ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY = 92
    • MANAGERIAL, ISSUES = 92
    • KEY TERMS/CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS = 95
    • QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW/QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION/EXERCISES/GROUP ASSIGNMENT = 96
    • MINICASE 1 : THE ROBOT MUSIC STORE COMPETES WITH RETAIL STORES = 97
    • MINICASE 2 : ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC TEA COMPANY COMPETES USING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY = 98
    • MINICASE 3 : HIGH-TECH INTEGRATION DRIVES VAN CONVERSIONS = 99
    • REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY = 99
    • 4 ORGANIZATIONS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY : REENGINEERING AND TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT = 101
    • CHAPTER OUTLINE = 101
    • 4.1 ALMOST EVERY INSURANCE COMPANY = 102
    • 4.2 ORGANIZATIONS : WHAT IT TAKES TO BE COMPETITIVE = 102
    • 4.3 TECHNIQUES LAG BEHIND TECHNOLOGY = 104
    • Horizontal Dimensions = 104
    • Vertical Dimensions = 106
    • Problem of the Stovepipe = 106
    • 4.4 FRAGMENTED PIECEMEAL SYSTEMS = 107
    • A Banking Example = 107
    • Redundancy = 109
    • Integration = 109
    • 4.5 FAILURE TO INTEGRATE = 111
    • 4.6 TECHNOLOGY AND TECHNIQUES TO ACHIEVE INTEGRATED MIS = 114
    • 4.7 FROM HIERARCHY TO NETWORK = 114
    • 4.8 REENGINEERING THE ORGANIZATION = 115
    • 4.9 NETWORK IS NOT JUST ABOUT TECHNOLOGY = 118
    • Approaches to Management = 118
    • Contingency Management = 119
    • Technology and Environment = 119
    • 4.10 SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND NETWORK MANAGEMENT = 120
    • 4.11 HOW TO REWARD WITHOUT PROMOTION = 123
    • 4.12 REENGINEERING TO ACHIEVE THE NETWORK INFORMATION-BASED ORGANIZATION = 124
    • 4.13 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND REENGINEERING = 125
    • Nothing Happens Until You Measure It = 127
    • Relevance of Information Systems in TQM = 130
    • And What If TQM Won't Get You There? = 132
    • From TQM to Total Product and Service Improvement = 133
    • 4.14 THE 3 RS OF REENGINEERING = 133
    • Redesign = 134
    • Retooling IT = 137
    • Reorchestrate = 139
    • 4.15 ARE YOU REALLY REENGINEERING? = 140
    • 4.16 LIKE AN ORCHESTRA : A LAST NOTE ON REENGINEERING = 141
    • MANAGERIAL ISSUES = 142
    • KEY TERMS/CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS = 142
    • QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW/QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION/EXERCISES/GROUP ASSIGNMENT = 143
    • MINICASE 1 : HIGH TECH MANUFACTURING = 145
    • MINICASE 2 : BOSTON CHICKEN USES IT TO IMPROVE PRODUCIVITY AND QUALITY AND TO REENGINEER = 145
    • MINICASE 3 : HARRY BURKSTALLER'S HEALTH CARE PROBLEM = 146
    • REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY = 147
    • Part Ⅰ Case Study : Woodstrat : A Support System for Strategic Management / by Pirkko Walden ; Ossi Kokkonen ; Christer Carlsson[Finland] = 148
    • PART Ⅱ INFORMATION SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY = 155
    • 5 PROCESSING THE INFORMATION : COMPUTER HARDWARE = 157
    • CHAPTER OUTLINE = 157
    • 5.1 LIGHTS! CAMERAS! COMPUTERS! = 158
    • 5.2 UNDERSTANDING COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY = 159
    • 5.3 A BRIEF HISTORY OF COMPUTERS = 159
    • Early Computing Devices = 159
    • The First Computer = 160
    • The Development of Microcomputers = 161
    • Computer Hardware Generations = 162
    • 5.4 CLASSIFYING COMPUTER HARDWARE = 165
    • Analog versus Digital = 165
    • Size and Computing Power = 166
    • 5.5 COMPUTER HARDWARE COMPONENTS = 171
    • The Central Processing Unit = 171
    • Input/Output = 176
    • Secondary Storage = 176
    • Data Channels = 181
    • 5.6 COMPUTER ARCHITECTURES = 182
    • Processor Instruction Sets = 182
    • Bus Connections = 183
    • Cache Memory = 183
    • MANAGERIAL ISSUES = 184
    • KEY TERMS/CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS = 184
    • QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW/QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION/EXERCISES/GROUP ASSIGNMENT = 185
    • MINICASE 1 : REENGINEERING AETNA WITH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY = 186
    • MINICASE 2 : TECHNOLOGY ENABLES CHANGE AT FANNIE MAE = 187
    • REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY = 188
    • 6 PROCESSING THE INFORMATION : COMPUTER SOFTWARE = 189
    • CHAPTER OUTLINE = 189
    • 6.1 "KILLER SOFTWARE" AT CYPRESS SEMICONDUCTOR = 190
    • 6.2 TYPES OF SOFTWARE = 190
    • 6.3 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES = 192
    • Machine Language = 192
    • Assembly Language = 192
    • High-Level Languages = 193
    • Nonprocedural Languages = 198
    • 6.4 APPLICATION SOFTWARE = 199
    • Spreadsheets = 200
    • Data Management = 202
    • Word Processing = 203
    • Desktop Publishing = 205
    • Graphics = 205
    • Multimedia = 207
    • Communications = 208
    • 6.5 SYSTEMS SOFTWARE = 209
    • System Control Programs = 209
    • System Support Programs = 212
    • System Development Programs = 212
    • Types of Operating Systems = 212
    • 6.6 SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT = 215
    • CASE = 215
    • Object-Oriented Programming = 217
    • Software Licensing = 219
    • MANAGERIAL ISSUES = 220
    • KEY TERMS/CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS = 220
    • QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW/QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION/EXERCISES/GROUP ASSIGNMENT = 222
    • MINICASE 1 : COMPUTER GAMES AT WORK = 223
    • MINICASE 2 : OLD DOGS AND NEW TRICKS = 223
    • REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY = 224
    • 7 USER INTERFACE : ENABLING HUMAN - COMPUTER COMMUNICATION = 225
    • CHAPTER OUTLINE = 225
    • 7.1 THE IMAGING SYSTEM AT UNITED SERVICES AUTOMOBILE ASSOCIATION = 226
    • 7.2 OVERVIEW OF USER INTERFACES = 227
    • 7.3 INPUT DEVICES = 229
    • Keying Devices = 231
    • Pointing Devices = 231
    • Optical Character Recognition(OCR) = 232
    • Handwriting Recognizers = 233
    • Voice Recognizers = 234
    • Other Devices = 235
    • 7.4 OUTPUT DEVICES = 237
    • Monitors = 237
    • Printers = 238
    • Voice Output = 238
    • Presentation Screens = 239
    • 7.5 INTERFACE MODES = 240
    • Menu Interaction = 240
    • Command Language = 240
    • Questions and Answers = 240
    • Form Interaction(Electronic Forms) = 240
    • Natural Language Processing = 241
    • Object Manipulation = 241
    • Choosing an Appropriate Interface Mode = 241
    • 7.6 COMPUTER GRAPHICS = 242
    • Graphics Software = 243
    • The Role of Computer Graphics in Business = 243
    • 7.7 GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE = 245
    • Major Components of GUI = 247
    • WYSIWYG Environment = 248
    • 7.8 MULTIMEDIA, HYPERMEDIA, AND HYPERTEXT = 248
    • Multimedia = 248
    • Hypertext and Hypermedia = 249
    • 7.9 GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS = 252
    • 7.10 VISUAL INTERACTIVE MODELING AND SIMULATION = 252
    • 7.11 VIRTUAL REALITY = 254
    • 3-D Presentations = 254
    • What Is Virtual Reality? = 254
    • 7.12 NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING = 258
    • MANAGERIAL ISSUES = 258
    • KEY TERMS/CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS = 260
    • QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW/QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION/EXERCISES/GROUP ASSIGNMENT = 261
    • MINICASE 1 : AN ELECTRONIC JOB SEARCH SYSTEM IN ILLINOIS = 263
    • MINICASE 2 : GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM AT DALLAS AREA RAPID TRANSIT = 263
    • REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY = 264
    • 8 DATA AND DATA MANAGEMENT = 266
    • CHAPTER OUTLINE = 266
    • 8.1 KNOW YOUR CUSTOMER - DATABASES MAKE IT EASIER = 267
    • 8.2 THE NEED TO ORGANIZE = 267
    • 8.3 FILES : THE TRADITIONAL APPROACH = 268
    • Data Commonality and Order = 268
    • Filing Problems = 269
    • 8.4 DATABASES : THE MODERN APPROACH = 271
    • Advantages of Database Management Systems = 271
    • Disadvantages of a Database = 272
    • 8.5 LOGICAL DATA ORGANIZATION = 273
    • Hierarchical Database Model = 273
    • The Network Database Model = 274
    • The Relational Database Model = 275
    • The Object-Oriented Database Model = 279
    • 8.6 PHYSICAL DATA ORGANIZATION = 280
    • Database Management Systems = 280
    • Database Topology = 285
    • Physical Data Storage = 287
    • Logical versus Physical = 288
    • 8.7 DATABASE MANAGEMENT = 288
    • MANAGERIAL ISSUES = 290
    • KEY TERMS/CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS = 290
    • QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW/QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION/EXERCISES/GROUP ASSIGNMENT = 291
    • MINICASE 1 : GLOBAL "LIBRARIES" - PROS AND CONS = 292
    • MINICASE 2 : PROSPECTING THE MODERN WAY = 293
    • REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY = 294
    • 9 DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORK ARCHITECTURE = 295
    • CHAPTER OUTLINE = 295
    • 9.1 ON-LINE COMPANY ON THE ROAD = 296
    • 9.2 THE NEED TO COMMUNICATE = 296
    • 9.3 COMMUNICATIONS MEDIA AND CHANNELS = 297
    • Signals = 298
    • Cables = 298
    • 9.4 WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS AND MOBILE COMPUTING = 300
    • Microwave = 300
    • Satellites = 301
    • Radio = 302
    • Infrared = 302
    • Cellular Radio Technology = 303
    • Mobile Computing = 304
    • Global Positioning Systems = 306
    • 9.5 COMMUNICATIONS HARDWARE = 307
    • Modems = 307
    • Transmission Modes = 308
    • Transmission Accuracy = 308
    • Processors = 308
    • 9.6 NETWORK ARCHITECTURE = 309
    • Network Topology = 309
    • Network Scope = 311
    • Network Distributed Processing = 313
    • 9.7 COMMUNICATIONS PROCESS = 315
    • Interfaces = 315
    • Bandwidth = 315
    • Synchronization = 316
    • 9.8 ENTERPRISE NETWORKING AND OPEN SYSTEMS = 317
    • Introduction = 317
    • The Philosophy of Open Systems = 318
    • Connectivity and Its Problems = 319
    • Protocols = 319
    • Communications Standards = 320
    • Other Standards = 322
    • 9.9 TRANSMISSION PROVIDERS = 322
    • Value-Added Networks = 322
    • Virtual Private Networks = 323
    • 9.10 COMMUNICATIONS APPLICATIONS = 324
    • Electronic Mail = 325
    • Videoconferencing = 326
    • Electronic Data Interchange(EDI) = 326
    • Electronic Funds Transfer(EFT) = 327
    • Facsimile = 328
    • MANAGERIAL ISSUES = 328
    • KEY TERMS/CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS = 329
    • QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW/QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION/EXERCISES/GROUP ASSIGNMENT = 330
    • MINICASE 1 : FULL-FEATURED NETWORK CONNECTS A CITY = 331
    • MINICASE 2 : SHOULD THE HOTEL CHAIN GO OPEN SYSTEM? = 331
    • REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY = 332
    • Part Ⅱ Case Study : ABC, Inc. Car Dealerships : Enabling Business With IT = 333
    • PART Ⅲ INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT = 337
    • 10 THE CORPORATE INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE = 339
    • CHAPTER OUTLINE = 339
    • 10.1 DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING AND RISK = 340
    • 10.2 OVERVIEW OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ARCHITECTURE = 341
    • Fundamental Architectures = 341
    • The Need = 343
    • 10.3 CENTRALIZED COMPUTING = 345
    • Mainframes = 346
    • Reengineering Legacy Systems = 348
    • 10.4 NONCENTRALIZED COMPUTING = 349
    • Distributed Computing = 350
    • Client/Server Architecture = 351
    • 10.5 END-USER AND ENTERPRISE COMPUTING = 355
    • Opportunities From End-User Computing = 355
    • Risks of End-User Computing = 356
    • Dividing Computing Responsibilities = 356
    • Information Architectures and End-User Computing = 358
    • 10.6 THE INFORMATION WAREHOUSE = 358
    • Definition = 358
    • Information Warehouse Benefits = 359
    • How to Organize an Information Warehouse = 359
    • 10.7 IT OUTSOURCING = 360
    • MANAGERIAL ISSUES = 362
    • KEY TERMS/CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS = 362
    • QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW/QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION/EXERCISES/GROUP ASSIGNMENT = 363
    • MINICASE 1 : CRUISING WITH DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING = 364
    • MINICASE 2 : DATA WAREHOUSE PAYBACKS = 365
    • REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY = 365
    • 11 INFORMATION SYSTEMS PLANNING = 366
    • CHAPTER OUTLINE = 366
    • 11.1 UTILITIES : PLANNING FOR CHANGE = 367
    • 11.2 PLANNING - A CRITICAL ISSUE = 367
    • 11.3 EVOLUTION OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS PLANNING = 368
    • 11.4 PROBLEMS OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS PLANNING = 369
    • Alignment of the IS Plan with the Organizational Plan = 369
    • Design of an Information System Architecture = 370
    • Allocation of Development Resources = 370
    • Completion of Projects On Time and According to Budget = 370
    • 11.5 BASIC FOUR-STAGE MODEL OF IS PLANNING = 370
    • 11.6 STRATEGIC IS PLANNING = 372
    • Competitive Strategy = 373
    • Customer Resource Life Cycle = 375
    • Future Perfect = 376
    • Strategic Planning Retreat = 378
    • Strategy Set Transformation = 378
    • Business Systems Planning(BSP) = 378
    • Critical Success Factors(CSFs) = 381
    • The Stages of IS Growth = 382
    • Ends/Means(E/M) Analysis = 385
    • 11.7 ORGANIZATIONAL INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS = 386
    • Building an OIRA = 387
    • Use of the OIRA Planning Results = 390
    • 11.8 RESOURCE ALLOCATION = 390
    • Return on Investment(ROI) = 391
    • Charge-Out = 391
    • 11.9 JUSTIFYING IT INVESTMENTS = 391
    • The Cost-Benefit Perspective = 391
    • The Management Accounting Perspective = 393
    • The Financial Analysis Perspective = 393
    • The Information Economics Perspective = 393
    • The Business Orientation Perspective = 394
    • The Changing Nature of Information Technology Benefits = 394
    • 11.10 PROJECT PLANNING = 395
    • Milestones = 395
    • Critical Path Method(CPM) = 396
    • Gantt Chart = 397
    • Project Priorities and Properties = 397
    • Project Properties and Techniques = 398
    • 11.11 GUIDELINES FOR IS PLANNING = 399
    • Stage Assessments = 400
    • Selecting a Methodology = 402
    • MANAGERIAL ISSUES = 402
    • KEY TERMS/CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS = 402
    • QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW/QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION/EXERCISES/GROUP ASSIGNMENT = 403
    • MINICASE 1 : DENVER AIRPORT - WHEN IT PLANS FAIL = 404
    • MINICASE 2 : METHODIST HOSPITAL = 405
    • REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY = 405
    • 12 INFORMATION SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN = 406
    • CHAPTER OUTLINE = 406
    • 12.1 RIGORS OF REGISTRATION = 407
    • 12.2 OVERVIEW OF THE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE = 407
    • 12.3 THE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE = 409
    • 12.4 STEP 1 : IDENTIFY PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES = 410
    • Concepts = 411
    • Defining Problems and Opportunities = 412
    • Feasibility Studies = 413
    • The Project Team = 415
    • 12.5 STEP 2 : ANALYZE AND DOCUMENT EXISTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS = 417
    • Information-Gathering Activities for Systems Analysis = 418
    • Review Object System = 419
    • Define Decision Making Associated with Object System = 419
    • Isolating Deficiencies in Existing Information System = 420
    • Documenting Existing Systems = 421
    • 12.6 STEP 3 : DETERMINE INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS = 424
    • Problems Determining Information Requirements = 425
    • Information Requirements Interview Techniques = 430
    • Define Information Categories and Map Interviews Into Them = 433
    • Business Reengineering = 434
    • MANAGERIAL ISSUES = 435
    • KEY TERMS/CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS = 436
    • QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW/QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION/EXERCISES/GROUP ASSIGNMENT = 436
    • MINICASE 1 : REENGINEERING THE UTILITY INDUSTRY = 437
    • MINICASE 2 : INDIVIDUALIZED SYSTEMS = 438
    • REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY = 439
    • 13 INFORMATION SYSTEMS DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT, IMPLEMENTATION, AND EVALUATION = 440
    • CHAPTER OUTLINE = 440
    • 13.1 A NEW SYSTEM AT SAMSON : BUT DOES IT WORK? = 441
    • 13.2 THE SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE : A REVIEW AND PREFACE = 442
    • A Review of the Systems Development Life Cycle = 442
    • Systems Development : A Rapidly Evolving Environment = 443
    • 13.3 STEP 4 : DESIGN TECHNOLOGY AND PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS = 443
    • Systems Design Techniques and Technologies = 444
    • Conceptual/Logical Design Phase = 445
    • Detailed Design Phase = 448
    • 13.4 STEP 5 : DEVELOP, TEST, AND VALIDATE THE NEW SYSTEM = 453
    • The Layered Approach = 454
    • Emerging Tool Sets for Constructing Information Systems = 457
    • Quality Assurance : Attitudes and Techniques = 459
    • Testing - A Critical Stage = 461
    • User-Developed Systems = 462
    • 13.5 STEP 6 : IMPLEMENT THE NEW SYSTEM = 463
    • Implementation Planing = 463
    • Conversion Strategy = 464
    • User Training = 465
    • Behavioral Considerations = 465
    • 13.6 STEP 7 : EVALUATE AND MAINTAIN THE NEW SYSTEM = 468
    • Evaluation = 468
    • Maintenance = 470
    • MANAGERIAL ISSUES = 471
    • KEY TERMS/CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS = 472
    • QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW/QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION/EXERCISES/GROUP ASSIGNMENT = 472
    • MINICASE 1 : LIQUOR-DISPENSING POINT-OF-SALE TERMINALS = 473
    • MINICASE 2 : FIGHTING THE SOFTWARE QUALITY BATTLE = 474
    • REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY = 475
    • Part Ⅲ Case Study : CASE Drives An Innovative System / by Chris Sauer[Australia] = 476
    • PART Ⅳ INFORMATION SUPPORT SYSTEMS(APPLICATIONS) = 481
    • 14 SUPPORTING COMMUNICATION AND COLLABORATIVE WORK = 483
    • CHAPTER OUTLINE = 483
    • 14.1 THE HARPER GROUP SPEEDS INTERNATIONAL TRADE USING ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE = 484
    • 14.2 COMMUNICATION NEEDS OF BUSINESS = 485
    • 14.3 COMMUNICATION CONCEPTS = 486
    • Factors Determining Uses of Information Technologies = 487
    • A Time/Place Framework = 487
    • 14.4 SUPPORTING COLLABORATIVE WORK = 488
    • The Nature of Group Work = 488
    • Improving the Work of Groups = 489
    • The Nominal Group Technique = 490
    • The Delphi Method = 490
    • Use of Information Technology - Groupware = 490
    • 14.5 ELECTRONIC TELECONFERENCING = 491
    • Video Teleconferencing = 491
    • 14.6 ELECTRONIC MAIL = 493
    • E-mail on Networks = 495
    • 14.7 ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE = 495
    • How Does EDI Work? = 497
    • Advantages and Disadvantages of EDI = 499
    • 14.8 PUBLIC NETWORK SERVICES AND BULLETIN BOARDS = 499
    • Commercial Databases = 499
    • Comprehensive Interactive Services = 500
    • Electronic Bulletin Boards = 500
    • 14.9 GROUP DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS = 500
    • What Is a Group Decision Support System? = 501
    • The Technology of GDSS = 502
    • Hardware = 502
    • Software = 503
    • People = 503
    • Procedures = 503
    • Representative Applications of GDSS = 504
    • 14.10 OTHER GROUPWARE TECHNOLOGIES = 505
    • Work Flow Systems = 505
    • 14.11 VOICE COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES = 506
    • Applications = 507
    • 14.12 TELECOMMUTING = 508
    • Telecommuting and Productivity = 508
    • 14.13 INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGIES AND LOTUS NOTES = 511
    • Integrated Technologies = 511
    • The Paperless Office = 511
    • Lotus Notes = 511
    • 14.14 INFORMATION SUPERHIGHWAYS AND THE INTERNET = 517
    • The Internet = 518
    • What You Can Do With The Internet = 519
    • Accessing The Internet = 519
    • Doing Business On-Line = 521
    • MANAGERIAL ISSUES = 521
    • KEY TERMS/CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS = 523
    • QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW/QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION/EXERCISES/GROUP ASSIGNMENT = 523
    • MINICASE 1 : NABISCO TRACKS ATTENDANCE USING VOICE TECHNOLOGIES = 525
    • MINICASE 2 : GENERAL MILLS REENGINEERS FOR ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE = 525
    • MINICASE 3 : WHICH TECHNOLOGY TO USE? = 526
    • REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY = 527
    • 15 SUPPORTING THE MANAGER AND DECISION MAKING = 529
    • CHAPTER OUTLINE = 529
    • 15.1 HEALTH CARE DELIVERY IS ENHANCED WITH DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS = 530
    • 15.2 MANAGEMENT AND MANAGERS = 530
    • 15.3 MANAGERIAL DECISION MAKING = 533
    • The Process of Making a Decision = 534
    • Models = 535
    • Decision Styles = 536
    • 15.4 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SUPPORT FOR MANAGERS = 537
    • Why Managers Need the Support of Information Technology = 537
    • How to Determine the Information Needs of Managers = 537
    • Can One Fully Automate the Manager's Job? = 539
    • What IT Technologies are Available to Support Managers = 539
    • 15.5 A FRAMEWORK FOR COMPUTERIZED DECISION SUPPORT = 541
    • Computer Support for Structured Decisions = 542
    • Management Science = 543
    • 15.6 DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS - AN OVERVIEW = 544
    • 15.7 CHARACTERISTICS AND CAPABILITIES OF DSS = 546
    • Sensitivity Analysis : "What-If" and Goal Seeking = 547
    • 15.8 THE STRUCTURE, COMPONENTS, AND DEVELOPMENT OF A DSS = 548
    • Data Management Subsystem = 549
    • Model Management Subsystem = 549
    • Knowledge Management Subsystem = 550
    • Communication Management Subsystem : The User Interface = 550
    • The User = 551
    • Building a DSS and Technology Levels = 551
    • Technology Levels = 552
    • 15.9 ORGANIZATIONAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS = 553
    • 15.10 EXECUTIVE INFORMATION AND SUPPORT SYSTEMS - AN OVERVIEW = 555
    • 15.11 CAPABILITIES AND BENEFITS OF EIS = 557
    • Drill Down = 557
    • Critical Success Factors and Key Performance Indicators = 557
    • Status Access = 558
    • Trend Analysis = 558
    • Ad Hoc Analysis = 558
    • Exception Reporting = 558
    • 15.12 DEVELOPMENT OF AN EIS AND ENTERPRISE EIS = 558
    • 15.13 SUPPORTING IDEA GENERATION AND CREATIVITY = 561
    • Idea Generation Software = 561
    • MANAGERIAL ISSUES = 563
    • KEY TERMS/CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS = 564
    • QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW/QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION/EXERCISES/GROUP ASSIGNMENT = 565
    • MINICASE 1 : EXECUTIVE SUPPORT TO TELEGLOBE CANADA = 566
    • MINICASE 2 : A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM-OR IS IT? = 567
    • REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY = 567
    • 16 INTELLIGENT SUPPORT SYSTEMS = 569
    • CHAPTER OUTLINE = 569
    • 16.1 LIFE IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY = 570
    • 16.2 INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE = 571
    • Definitions = 571
    • Knowledge and AI = 572
    • Intelligent Agents = 573
    • 16.3 ARTIFICIAL VERSUS NATURAL INTELLIGENCE = 573
    • Conventional Versus AI Computing = 574
    • Does a Computer Really Think? = 575
    • 16.4 THE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FIELD : INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS = 575
    • Expert Systems = 575
    • Natural Language Processing = 577
    • Speech(Voice) Understanding = 577
    • Robotics and Sensory Systems = 577
    • Computer Vision and Scene Recognition = 577
    • Intelligent Computer-Aided Instruction = 579
    • Machine Learning = 579
    • Other Applications = 579
    • 16.5 WHAT IS AN EXPERT SYSTEM? = 580
    • Expertise and Knowledge = 581
    • 16.6 BENEFITS AND LIMITATIONS OF EXPERT SYSTEMS = 583
    • The Benefits of Expert Systems = 583
    • The Limitations of Expert Systems = 585
    • 16.7 COMPONENTS OF AN EXPERT SYSTEM = 586
    • Knowledge Base = 587
    • Inference Engine = 587
    • Blackboard = 587
    • User Interface = 587
    • Explanation Subsystem(Justifier) = 587
    • Knowledge Refining System = 587
    • 16.8 HOW ARE EXPERT SYSTEMS DEVELOPED? = 588
    • Knowledge Engineering = 588
    • The Development Process = 589
    • Participants in the Development Process = 590
    • 16.9 KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION = 590
    • Difficulties in Knowledge Acquisition = 590
    • Methods of Knowledge Acquisition = 591
    • Knowledge Acquisition from Multiple Experts = 592
    • Validation and Verification of the Knowledge Base = 593
    • 16.10 KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION = 593
    • Production Rules = 593
    • Frames = 593
    • 16.11 HOW DO EXPERT SYSTEMS MAKE INFERENCES? = 594
    • 16.12 APPLICATIONS OF EXPERT SYSTEMS = 595
    • Example l : Russian Trade Advisor = 596
    • Example 2 : Ticket Auditing at Northwest Airlines = 596
    • Example 3 : Credit Clearing House - Dun & Bradstreet Corporation = 597
    • Example 4 : Dustpro - Environmental Control in Mines = 597
    • 16.13 NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING AND VOICE TECHNOLOGY = 598
    • Natural Language Processing Software = 598
    • Key Word Analysis(Pattern Matching) = 599
    • Language Processing(Syntactic, Semantic, and Pragmatic Analysis) = 599
    • Applications of Natural Language Processing and Software = 600
    • Speech(Voice) Recognition and Understanding = 601
    • Advantages of Speech Recognition = 601
    • Voice Synthesis = 602
    • 16.14 NEURAL COMPUTING = 602
    • Biological and Artificial Neural Networks = 602
    • Components and Structure of ANN = 603
    • Processing Information in the Network = 603
    • Hardware and Software = 605
    • Benefits and Applications of Neural Networks = 605
    • 16.15 FUZZY LOGIC = 606
    • Example : International Investment Management : Stock Selection = 607
    • 16.16 INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS SUPPORT FOR KNOWLEDGE WORKERS, AND SELF-DIRECTED TEAMS = 608
    • Knowledge Workers = 608
    • Self-Directed Teams = 608
    • MANAGERIAL ISSUES = 609
    • KEY TERMS/CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS = 609
    • QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW/QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION/EXERCISES/GROUP ASSIGNMENT = 610
    • MINICASE 1 : RULES OF THUMB SCHEDULE TRAINS IN PARIS = 612
    • MINICASE 2 : CAN AN EXPERT SYSTEM ENHANCE THE IMAGE OF A BANK? = 613
    • REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY = 614
    • 17 FROM TRANSACTION PROCESSING TO INNOVATIVE FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS = 616
    • CHAPTER OUTLINE = 616
    • 17.1 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BENEFITS BUSINESS PROCESSES AT PYRO INDUSTRIES = 617
    • 17.2 BUSINESS PROCESSES, THE VALUE CHAIN, AND THE FUNCTIONAL AREAS = 618
    • The Value Chain Model, Functional Areas, and BPR = 618
    • 17.3 MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF A FUNCTIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEM = 619
    • 17.4 TRANSACTION PROCESSING = 621
    • Objectives of TPS = 621
    • Characteristics of TPS = 621
    • Activities and Methods of TPS = 621
    • Modern TPS = 623
    • Reengineering Transaction Processing = 624
    • 17.5 TRANSACTION PROCESSING TASKS = 625
    • 17.6 MANAGING PRODUCTION/OPERATIONS AND LOGISTICS PROCESSES = 629
    • In-House Logistics and Material Management = 631
    • Planning Production/Operations = 632
    • Automating Design Work and Manufacturing = 635
    • Moving from Mass Production to Mass Customization = 637
    • Computer Integrated Manufacturing(CIM) = 639
    • 17.7 MANAGING MARKETING, DISTRIBUTION, AND SERVICE PROCESSES = 641
    • Channel Systems = 641
    • The Customer is King = 641
    • Telemarketing = 643
    • Distribution Channels = 644
    • Marketing Management = 645
    • 17.8 MANAGING HUMAN RESOURCE SYSTEMS : FROM RECRUITMENT TO EMPOWERMENT = 650
    • Recruitment = 650
    • Human Resource Maintenance and Development = 650
    • Human Resource Planning and Management-Labor Negotiations = 652
    • Empowerment of Employees = 653
    • Teams = 654
    • 17.9 INTEGRATING FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS AND COMMERCIAL SOFTWARE PACKAGES = 655
    • MANAGERIAL ISSUES = 658
    • KEY TERMS/CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS = 659
    • QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW/QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION/EXERCISES/GROUP ASSIGNMENT = 660
    • MINICASE 1 : FEDERAL EXPRESS'S ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS SYSTEM = 661
    • MINICASE 2 : FUNCTIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS AT ARGOT INTERNATIONAL = 662
    • MINICASE 3 : ELECTRONIC PIG AUCTIONING IN SINGAPORE = 662
    • REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY = 664
    • Part Ⅳ Case Study : Expert Systems Improve the Troubleshooting of the City of Los Angeles Computer Hardware = 666
    • PART Ⅴ MANAGING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY = 671
    • 18 ORGANIZING INFORMATION RESOURCES = 673
    • CHAPTER OUTLINE = 673
    • 18.1 SUCCESSES AND FAILURES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN FOUR ORGANIZATIONS = 674
    • 18.2 FITTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS INTO THE ORGANIZATION = 676
    • Guidelines = 678
    • 18.3 CENTRALIZATION-DECENTRALIZATION OF INFORMATION RESOURCES = 678
    • Advantages and Disadvantages = 679
    • Arguments for Centralization = 679
    • Arguments for Decentralization = 680
    • 18.4 LEADERSHIP FOR INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND THE CHIEF INFORMATION OFFICER = 681
    • Guidelines = 682
    • 18.5 BASIC ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT = 683
    • Managerial Efficiency versus User Service = 684
    • End-User Oriented Structure and the Virtual IS Organization = 685
    • Analysis and Programming = 686
    • Maintenance = 688
    • 18.6 THE IS DEPARTMENT AND END USERS = 688
    • 18.7 SERVICE SUPPORT LEVELS AGREEMENTS = 690
    • 18.8 THE INFORMATION CENTER = 690
    • Purposes and Activities = 691
    • Staffing = 691
    • Problem Areas = 692
    • 18.9 THE STEERING COMMITTEE AND CONSULTANTS = 693
    • Consultants(Outside Advisors) = 694
    • MANAGERIAL ISSUES = 694
    • KEY TERMS/CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS = 695
    • QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW/QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION/EXERCISES/GROUP ASSIGNMENT = 696
    • MINICASE 1 : CENTRALIZED INFORMATION SYSTEM AT MEAD CORPORATION = 696
    • MINICASE 2 : THE DILEMMA OF THE DEPARTED PROGRAMMER = 698
    • REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY = 698
    • 19 CONTROL AND SECURITY OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS = 700
    • CHAPTER OUTLINE = 700
    • 19.1 THE BOMBING OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER = 701
    • 19.2 A KEY ISSUE FOR MANAGEMENT = 701
    • 19.3 INCIDENTS OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS BREAKDOWNS = 702
    • 19.4 SYSTEM VULNERABILITY AND HAZARDS = 705
    • 19.5 COMPUTER CRIMES = 707
    • Types of Computer Crimes and Criminals = 707
    • Methods of Attack = 708
    • 19.6 DEFENDING AGAINST THREATS AND CORRECTING MALFUNCTIONS = 710
    • Defense Strategies(How do we protect?) = 711
    • Types of Controls = 712
    • 19.7 GENERAL CONTROLS = 713
    • Physical Controls = 713
    • Access Control = 714
    • Data Security Controls = 715
    • Communications (Network) Controls = 715
    • Administrative Controls = 716
    • Other General Controls = 716
    • 19.8 APPLICATION CONTROLS = 717
    • Input Controls = 717
    • Processing Controls = 718
    • Output Controls = 718
    • 19.9 AUDITING INFORMATION SYSTEMS = 718
    • Types of Auditors and Audits = 719
    • How is Auditing Executed? = 719
    • Sources of Information and Auditor's Reports = 720
    • 19.10 IMPLEMENTING CONTROLS AND DISASTER PLANNING = 720
    • Planning and Organizing = 721
    • Disaster Recovery Planning = 722
    • 19.11 RISK MANAGEMENT AND COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS = 724
    • 19.12 HOW TO PROTECT PERSONAL COMPUTERS = 725
    • Reducing the Risk of a Virus Attack = 725
    • Protecting Against Loss of Data = 727
    • Taking Care of Physical Elements = 727
    • 19.13 CONTROL AND SECURITY IN THE 1990S = 727
    • Increasing the Reliability of the Systems = 727
    • Expert Systems for Early Detection = 727
    • Expert Systems in Auditing = 727
    • Artificial Intelligence in Biometrics = 727
    • Expert System for Diagnosis and Prognosis = 728
    • Smart Cards = 729
    • MANAGERIAL ISSUES = 729
    • KEY TERMS/CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS = 729
    • QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW/QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION/EXERCISES/GROUP ASSIGNMENT = 730
    • MINICASE 1 : HACKER CONVICTED = 732
    • MINICASE 2 : HOW MUCH DISASTER PREPARATION IS ENOUGH? = 732
    • MINICASE 3 : FLYHIGH CORPORATION = 733
    • REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY = 733
    • 20 IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON ORGANIZATIONS, INDIVIDUALS, AND SOCIETY = 735
    • CHAPTER OUTLINE = 735
    • 20.1 SOFTWARE DILEMMA AT AGRICO, INC. = 736
    • 20.2 DOES INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HAVE ONLY POSITIVE EFFECTS? = 737
    • 20.3 ETHICAL ISSUES = 738
    • 20.4 INFORMATION PRIVACY = 739
    • Electronic Surveillance = 741
    • Personal Information in Databases = 742
    • Information on Bulletin Boards = 743
    • Transfer of Data Across International Borders = 743
    • Privacy Codes = 744
    • 20.5 IMPACTS ON ORGANIZATIONS = 744
    • Structure = 744
    • Centralization of Authority = 745
    • Power and Status = 746
    • Job Content = 746
    • Employee Career Ladders = 746
    • Changes in Supervision = 746
    • Other Considerations = 747
    • The Manager's Job = 747
    • 20.6 IMPACTS ON INDIVIDUALS = 748
    • Job Satisfaction = 748
    • Dehumanization = 748
    • Psychological Impacts = 749
    • 20.7 IMPACTS ON HEALTH AND SAFETY = 749
    • Job Stress = 749
    • Repetitive Strain Injuries = 749
    • Lessening the Negative Impacts on Health and Safety = 751
    • Other Impacts = 751
    • 20.8 SOCIETAL IMPACTS = 751
    • Opportunities for the Disabled = 751
    • Changing Role of Women = 753
    • Improvements in Health Care = 754
    • Help for the Consumer = 754
    • Quality of Life = 754
    • Social Responsibility = 755
    • International Implications = 756
    • The Role of Management = 757
    • 20.9 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND EMPLOYMENT = 758
    • Arguments that Support Massive Unemployment = 759
    • Arguments Contradicting Massive Unemployment = 759
    • 20.10 THE FUTURE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY = 760
    • Technological Developments = 760
    • Information Systems Applications = 762
    • MANAGERIAL ISSUES = 763
    • KEY TERMS/CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS = 763
    • QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW/QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION/EXERCISES/GROUP ASSIGNMENT = 764
    • MINICASE 1 : HOW PRIVATE IS E-MAIL? = 767
    • MINICASE 2 : AMERICAN STOCK EXCHANGE SEEKS WIRELESS TRADES = 768
    • REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY = 768
    • Part Ⅴ Case Study : Otis Elevator Pioneering Information Technology = 770
    • INTERNATIONAL CASES = 775
    • Tradenet : Singapore's Computerization of International Trade / by Boon-Siong Neo[Nanyang Technological University(Singapore)] = 776
    • Pilkington, Plc : A Major Multinational Outsources its Head Office Information Technology Function / by Leslie Willcocks[Templeton College, Oxford, and Guy Fitzgerald, University of London(United Kingdom)] = 783
    • Digital Equipment Corporation International(Europe) : Fitting Information Technology Architecture to Competitive Restructuring - Going Local and Global / by Donald Marchand ; Kimberly Bechler[Institute of Management Development(Switzerland)] = 787
    • From a Dinosaur to a Chameleon : Transformation of a Korean Bank / by Young Moo Kang[Dong-A University(Korea)] = 793
    • Managing Public Information Systems Development / by Nicolau Reinhard ; Ronaldo Zwicker[University of Sao Paulo(Brazil)] = 798
    • GLOSSARY = G-1
    • PHOTO CREDITS = P-1
    • NAME INDEX = NI-1
    • ORGANIZATIONS INDEX = OI-1
    • SUBJECT INDEX = SI-1