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Handbook of management information systems : a managerial perspective

저자 : Bidgoli, Hossein

발행사항 : San Diego : Academic Press, c1999

발행연도 : 1999

작성언어 : 영어

주제어 : Management information systems

DDC : 658.4/038 판사항(21)

자료형태 : 도서

발행국(도시) : California

서명/저자사항 : Handbook of management information systems : a managerial perspective / Hossein Bidgoli.

형태사항 : xxxv, 643 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.

일반주기명 : Includes bibliographical references.

소장기관 :

  • 국립중앙도서관
  • 상명대학교 서울캠퍼스 도서관
  • 서울대학교 중앙도서관
  • 성균관대학교 중앙학술정보관
  • 세종대학교 도서관
  • 연세대학교 학술문화처 도서관
  • 위덕대학교 도서관
  • 인제대학교 백인제기념도서관
  • 중앙대학교 서울캠퍼스 학술정보원
  • 한성대학교 도서관
  • 한양대학교 중앙도서관
  • 홍익대학교 세종캠퍼스 문정도서관
  • 소장기관 전체보기

서지정보 열기
    원문보기 복사/대출신청 내보내기 내책장담기 한글로보기
  • 목차
    • CONTENTS
    • Preface = xxix
    • Acknowledgments = xxxv
    • Part Ⅰ Information Systems Basics
    • Chapter 1 Information Systems : An Overview
    • Learning Objectives = 1
    • 1-1 Introduction = 4
    • 1-2 Computer-Based Information Systems (CBISs) = 4
    • 1-3 A CBIS Model = 5
    • 1-3-1 Data = 5
    • 1-3-2 Database = 7
    • 1-3-3 Process = 8
    • 1-3-4 Information = 8
    • 1-3-5 Information Systems Life Cycle = 9
    • 1-3-6 Environment = 10
    • 1-3-7 Design Specifications = 10
    • 1-4 Classes of CBISs = 11
    • 1-4-1 Electronic Data Processing (EDP) = 12
    • 1-4-2 Management Information Systems (MISs) = 13
    • 1-4-3 Decision Support Systems (DSSs) = 13
    • 1-4-4 Executive Information Systems (EISs) = 14
    • 1-5 Comparative Analysis of EDP, MISs, DSSs, and EISs = 15
    • 1-6 Other Classes of Information Systems = 16
    • 1-6-1 Group Support Systems (GSSs) = 17
    • 1-6-2 Geographic Information Systems (GISs) = 18
    • 1-7 The Artificial Intelligence (AI) Era = 19
    • 1-8 AI-Related Technologies = 20
    • 1-8-1 Expert Systems = 20
    • 1-8-2 Natural Language Processing (NLP) = 21
    • 1-8-3 Robotics = 22
    • 1-8-4 Neural Networks = 23
    • 1-8-5 Fuzzy Logic = 24
    • 1-8-6 Intelligent Agents = 25
    • 1-9 Do Computers Think? = 26
    • 1-10 Will Computers Replace Us? = 27
    • 1-11 The Importance of CBISs = 27
    • 1-12 Future Outlook = 28
    • Summary = 29
    • Review Questions = 29
    • Projects = 30
    • Key Terms = 31
    • References = 31
    • Chapter 2 Hardware and Software Concepts
    • Learning Objectives = 33
    • 2-1 Introduction = 34
    • 2-2 Input Devices = 34
    • 2-2-1 Keyboard = 34
    • 2-2-2 Touch Screen = 35
    • 2-2-3 Light Pen = 35
    • 2-2-4 Mouse = 36
    • 2-2-5 Trackball = 36
    • 2-2-6 Data Tablet = 36
    • 2-2-7 Bar Code Reader = 36
    • 2-2-8 Optical Character Reader = 36
    • 2-3 Output Devices = 37
    • 2-4 Memory Devices = 37
    • 2-4-1 Main Memory Devices = 41
    • 2-4-2 Secondary Memory Devices = 43
    • 2-5 Classes of Computers = 44
    • 2-6 Defining a Computer Program = 44
    • 2-7 Operating Systems = 47
    • 2-8 Application Software for Microcomputers = 47
    • 2-8-1 Word Processing Software = 48
    • 2-8-2 Spreadsheet Software = 49
    • 2-8-3 Database Software = 50
    • 2-8-4 Graphics Software = 51
    • 2-8-5 Communications Software = 51
    • 2-8-6 Desktop Publishing Software = 52
    • 2-8-7 Financial Planning Software = 53
    • 2-8-8 Accounting Software = 54
    • 2-8-9 Project Management Software = 54
    • 2-8-10 Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Software = 54
    • 2-8-11 Other Popular Software for Microcomputers = 55
    • 2-9 Computer Languages = 55
    • 2-10 High-Level Languages = 57
    • 2-10-1 FORTRAN = 57
    • 2-10-2 COBOL = 58
    • 2-10-3 BASIC = 59
    • 2-10-4 PASCAL = 60
    • 2-10-5 C = 60
    • 2-10-6 Java = 61
    • Summary = 63
    • Review Questions = 63
    • Projects = 64
    • Key Terms = 65
    • References = 65
    • Chapter 3 Database Concepts
    • Learning Objectives = 67
    • 3-1 Introduction = 68
    • 3-2 What Is a Database? = 68
    • 3-3 Types of Data in the Information Systems Environment = 70
    • 3-4 Database Design : An Overview = 70
    • 3-5 Database Design : A Functional View = 72
    • 3-6 Issues Related to the Data Component of a Database = 73
    • 3-7 Conceptual Design of a Database = 75
    • 3-7-1 The Relational Model = 75
    • 3-7-2 The Hierarchical Model = 77
    • 3-7-3 The Network Model = 79
    • 3-8 Database Administrator = 80
    • 3-9 Methods for Accessing Files and Databases = 81
    • 3-10 Querying a Database = 82
    • 3-11 New Trends in Database Design and Utilization = 82
    • 3-11-1 Distributed Database = 83
    • 3-11-2 Client/server Database = 87
    • 3-11-3 Object-Oriented Database = 87
    • 3-11-4 Database Machines = 90
    • Summary = 90
    • Review Questions = 91
    • Projects = 93
    • Key Terms = 94
    • References = 94
    • Chapter 4 Organizational, Social, and Legal Impacts of Information Systems
    • Learning Objectives = 95
    • 4-1 Introduction = 96
    • 4-2 Negative Effects of Information Systems : An Overview = 96
    • 4-2-1 Information Systems Effects on the Workplace = 96
    • 4-2-2 Privacy Issues = 98
    • 4-2-3 Computer Crime and Fraud = 100
    • 4-2-4 Health Issues = 101
    • 4-3 Information System Impacts on the Organization Structure and Function = 103
    • 4-3-1 Information System Impacts on the Organization's Traditional Structure = 103
    • 4-3-2 Telecommuting : Reducing the Organization's Physical Size = 105
    • 4-3-3 Virtual Organization : Breaking the Traditional Barriers = 109
    • 4-3-4 Information System Impacts on Middle Management = 110
    • 4-3-5 Information Systems and Decentralization = 111
    • 4-4 Social and Legal Issues of Information Systems = 112
    • 4-4-1 Copyrights, Patents, and Piracy = 112
    • 4-4-2 Legal Issues of Expert Systems = 115
    • Summary = 118
    • Review Questions = 118
    • Projects = 120
    • Key Terms = 120
    • References = 120
    • Part Ⅱ Data Communications and the Internet
    • Chapter 5 Data Communications Concepts
    • Learning Objectives = 125
    • 5-1 Introduction = 126
    • 5-2 Defining Data Communications = 126
    • 5-3 Components of a Data Communications System = 127
    • 5-3-1 Sender and Receiver Devices = 127
    • 5-3-2 Modems = 127
    • 5-3-3 Communications Media = 129
    • 5-3-4 Communications Software = 131
    • 5-3-5 Communications Control Unit = 131
    • 5-4 Data Processing Configurations = 131
    • 5-4-1 Centralized = 131
    • 5-4-2 Decentralized = 133
    • 5-4-3 Distributed Data Processing = 133
    • 5-5 Important Concepts in Data Communications = 134
    • 5-6 Network Types = 136
    • 5-7 Network Topologies = 137
    • 5-7-1 Star Network = 137
    • 5-7-2 Ring Network = 138
    • 5-7-3 Bus Network = 138
    • 5-7-4 Tree Network = 138
    • 5-7-5 Web Network = 141
    • 5-8 Applications of Data Communications = 141
    • 5-9 PBX Network = 143
    • 5-10 ISDN Network = 144
    • 5-11 Summary = 145
    • Review Questions = 145
    • Projects = 146
    • Key Terms = 147
    • References = 147
    • Chapter 6 Security Issues and Measures
    • Learning Objectives = 149
    • 6-1 Introduction = 149
    • 6-2 What Is Computer Security Anyway? = 150
    • 6-3 Security Issues and Considerations = 151
    • 6-4 Intentional Computer Threats = 152
    • 6-5 Security Measures = 155
    • 6-5-1 General System Security = 156
    • 6-5-2 Physical Security = 161
    • 6-5-3 Software Security = 162
    • 6-6 Guidelines for a Comprehensive Security System = 165
    • 6-7 Preparing for a Disaster = 167
    • 6-8 Steps to Take When Disaster Strikes = 169
    • Summary = 169
    • Review Questions = 169
    • Projects = 170
    • Key Terms = 171
    • References = 172
    • Chapter 7 The Information Superhighway and Global Information Systems
    • Learning Objectives = 173
    • 7-1 Introduction = 174
    • 7-2 The Information Superhighway : An Overview = 174
    • 7-3 Internet Access Options = 175
    • 7-4 Domain Name Systems = 177
    • 7-5 Navigational Tools = 179
    • 7-6 Basic Terminology = 181
    • 7-7 Netiquette = 183
    • 7-8 Internet Services = 183
    • 7-8-1 Electronic Mail (E-mail) = 183
    • 7-8-2 News Groups and Discussions = 184
    • 7-8-3 Transferring Files with FTP = 184
    • 7-8-4 Telnet = 184
    • 7-8-5 Internet Relay Chat (IRC) = 185
    • 7-9 Internet Applications = 185
    • 7-9-1 Marketing = 185
    • 7-9-2 Online Employment = 188
    • 7-9-3 Banking = 188
    • 7-9-4 Online Software = 189
    • 7-9-5 Politics = 190
    • 7-9-6 Healthcare = 190
    • 7-9-7 Miscellaneous Applications = 191
    • 7-10 Global Information Systems : An Overview = 192
    • 7-11 Definitions and Requirements of Global Computer-Based Information Systems (GCBISs) = 194
    • 7-12 Components of a Global Information System = 197
    • 7-13 Organizational Structure and Global Information Systems = 199
    • 7-14 Global Information Systems in Action = 201
    • 7-14-1 Digital Equipment Corporation = 201
    • 7-14-2 Frank Russell Corporation = 203
    • 7-15 Obstacles in Designing Global Information Systems = 203
    • 7-16 Economic Issues = 205
    • 7-17 Social Implications = 207
    • 7-18 Future Development = 208
    • Summary = 209
    • Review Questions = 209
    • Projects = 210
    • Key Terms = 211
    • References = 211
    • Chapter 8 The Intranet : The Internet of Your Own
    • Learning Objectives = 215
    • 8-1 Introduction = 216
    • 8-2 Internet versus Intranet = 216
    • 8-3 What Is an Intranet? = 217
    • 8-4 What Are Extranets? = 220
    • 8-5 Developing an Intranet Site = 220
    • 8-5-1 Problem Definition = 221
    • 8-5-2 Cost and Benefit Analysis = 221
    • 8-5-3 Formation of the Task Force = 222
    • 8-5-4 Construction of a Prototype : Pilot Implementation = 223
    • 8-5-5 Assessing the Security and Privacy Issues = 224
    • 8-5-6 Tool Selection = 225
    • 8-5-7 Implementation = 226
    • 8-5-8 Postimplementation Audit : Intranet Site Marketing = 230
    • 8-6 Intranet versus GroupWare = 232
    • 8-7 Applications of the Intranet : An Overview = 233
    • 8-8 Training Applications of the Intranet = 235
    • 8-9 Major Business Function Applications of the Intranet = 237
    • 8-10 Applications of the Intranet by Major Companies = 237
    • Summary = 238
    • Review Questions = 239
    • Projects = 240
    • Key Terms = 240
    • References = 241
    • Part Ⅲ Building and Utilizing Effective Information Systems
    • Chapter 9 Tools and Techniques for Building Information Systems
    • Learning Objectives = 245
    • 9-1 Introduction = 246
    • 9-2 The Classic Life-Cycle Approach = 246
    • 9-2-1 Problem Definition = 246
    • 9-2-2 Feasibility Study = 248
    • 9-2-3 Systems Analysis = 250
    • 9-2-4 Systems Design = 251
    • 9-2-5 Systems Implementation = 251
    • 9-2-6 Postimplementation Audit = 255
    • 9-3 Product Life-Cycle Approach = 255
    • 9-3-1 Introduction = 257
    • 9-3-2 Growth = 257
    • 9-3-3 Maturity = 257
    • 9-3-4 Decline = 258
    • 9-4 Product Life-Cycle and Information Systems Design Considerations = 259
    • 9-4-1 User = 259
    • 9-4-2 Technology = 260
    • 9-4-3 lop Management = 260
    • 9-4-4 Environment = 260
    • 9-5 Monitoring Mechanisms for Information Systems Implementation = 261
    • 9-6 Rapid System Development = 262
    • 9-6-1 Computer-Assisted Systems Engineering = 262
    • 9-6-2 Prototyping = 263
    • 9-7 Systems Analysis and Design : An Integrated Approach = 266
    • 9-7-1 Problem Definition = 267
    • 9-7-2 Formation of the Task Force = 267
    • 9-7-3 Construction of an Online Prototype = 267
    • 9-7-4 Evaluation = 268
    • Summary = 270
    • Review Questions = 270
    • Projects = 271
    • Key Terms = 272
    • References = 272
    • Chapter 10 Total Quality Management and Information Systems Reengineering
    • Learning Objectives = 275
    • 10-1 Introduction = 276
    • 10-2 Total Quality Management (TQM) : An Overview = 276
    • 10-3 Principles of Total Quality Management = 277
    • 10-3-1 Visions and Values = 279
    • 10-3-2 Commitment and Participation = 280
    • 10-3-3 Quality Measurement = 280
    • 10-3-4 Continuous Improvement = 281
    • 10-3-5 Human Resource Development = 282
    • 10-3-6 Rewards = 283
    • 10-3-7 Technology and Systems = 283
    • 10-4 Information Systems Role in TQM Implementation = 284
    • 10-5 TQM Role in Information Systems Design and Implementation = 287
    • 10-5-1 Continuous Improvement in Information Systems = 289
    • 10-5-2 TQM Techniques for Information Systems Development = 290
    • 10-5-3 TQM and CASE Tools = 291
    • 10-5-4 TQM and Group Decision Support Systems = 293
    • 10-6 Business Process Reengineering = 293
    • 10-6-1 Why Reengineering? = 294
    • 10-6-2 The Role of Information Systems in Reengineering = 295
    • 10-7 TQM in Action = 298
    • 10-8 Synergy between TQM and Information Systems = 300
    • Summary = 301
    • Review Questions = 301
    • Projects = 302
    • Key Terms = 303
    • References = 303
    • Chapter 11 Building Effective Information Systems in Functional Areas
    • Learning Objectives = 305
    • 11-1 Introduction = 306
    • 11-2 Building Information Systems : An Overview = 306
    • 11-3 Tools and Software Products for Building an Information System = 307
    • 11-4 Three Approaches for Building an Information System = 308
    • 11-5 End-User Computing (EUC) : A Viable Alternative for Information Systems Construction = 310
    • 11-5-1 Advantages of EUC = 311
    • 11-5-2 Disadvantages of EUC = 312
    • 11-5-3 Successful Utilization of EUC = 314
    • 11-6 Building Effective Information Systems in Functional Areas = 316
    • 11-7 Manufacturing Information Systems (MFISs) = 316
    • 11-7-1 MFISs and Inventory Control = 317
    • 11-8 Marketing Information Systems (MKISs) = 321
    • 11-9 Personnel Information Systems (PISs) = 321
    • 11-10 Financial Information Systems (FISs) = 321
    • 11-11 Strategic Planning Information Systems (SPISs) = 322
    • 11-12 The Behavioral Issues in Information Systems = 323
    • 11-13 Information Systems and Organizational Levels = 326
    • 11-14 Guidelines for Building a Successful Information System = 330
    • Summary = 330
    • Review Questions = 332
    • Projects = 333
    • Key Terms = 334
    • References = 335
    • Part Ⅳ Information Systems in Action
    • Chapter 12 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) : A New Strategic Tool
    • Learning Objectives = 339
    • 12-1 Introduction = 340
    • 12-2 What Is Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)? = 340
    • 12-3 The History of EDI = 342
    • 12-4 The Growth of EDI = 342
    • 12-5 Introducing EDI into Your Organization = 345
    • 12-5-1 Assessing the Strategic Value of EDI Applications = 346
    • 12-5-2 Analyzing the Advantages and Disadvantages of EDI Applications = 349
    • 12-5-3 Analyzing EDI Costs = 351
    • 12-5-4 Choosing a Communication Interface Option = 351
    • 12-5-5 Reviewing EDI Standards = 355
    • 12-5-6 EDI Implementation = 357
    • 12-6 EDI Applications = 359
    • 12-6-1 The DuPont Corporation = 359
    • 12-6-2 The Federal Government = 359
    • 12-6-3 General Motors = 361
    • 12-6-4 The Healthcare Industry = 361
    • 12-6-5 Mobil Corporation = 362
    • 12-6-6 The Transportation Industry = 363
    • Summary = 363
    • Review Questions = 363
    • Projects = 364
    • Key Terms = 364
    • References = 364
    • Chapter 13 Decision Support and Executive Information Systems
    • Learning Objectives = 367
    • 13-1 Introduction = 368
    • 13-2 What Is a Decision Support System (DSS)? = 368
    • 13-3 DSS Taxonomy = 369
    • 13-4 Costs and Benefits of DSSs = 370
    • 13-5 DSS Capabilities = 372
    • 13-6 Three Levels of DSS Technology = 372
    • 13-7 Different Players in the DSS Environment = 374
    • 13-8 Components of a DSS = 376
    • 13-9 Building an Effective DSS = 378
    • 13-10 DSSs in Action = 378
    • 13-11 Defining Executive Information Systems (EISs) = 378
    • 13-12 A Conceptual Model for an EIS = 383
    • 13-13 Why Do Executives Need an EIS? = 384
    • 13-14 Avoiding Failure in EIS Design and Utilization = 385
    • 13-15 Guidelines for Effective EIS Design = 388
    • 13-16 EISs in Action = 389
    • 13-16-1 Washington Hospital Center = 390
    • 13-16-2 Hertz Car Rental Company = 390
    • 13-16-3 Texas Instruments = 391
    • 13-17 EIS Packages and Tools = 392
    • 13-17-1 Data Warehouses and Replication Capabilities = 392
    • 13-17-2 Evaluation Criteria = 393
    • Summary = 394
    • Review Questions = 395
    • Projects = 396
    • Key Terms = 396
    • References = 397
    • Chapter 14 Group Support Systems : Collaborative Computing Has Started
    • Learning Objectives = 399
    • 14-1 Introduction = 400
    • 14-2 Group Support Systems (GSSs) : An Overview = 400
    • 14-3 The Components of a Group Decision Support System (GDSS) = 401
    • 14-3-1 Software and Hardware = 402
    • 14-3-2 People = 402
    • 14-4 Levels of Support Provided by a GSS = 403
    • 14-4-1 Level 1 Support = 404
    • 14-4-2 Level 2 Support = 404
    • 14-4-3 Level 3 Support = 405
    • 14-5 GSS Tools = 405
    • 14-5-1 Basic Tools = 405
    • 14-5-2 Advanced Tools = 407
    • 14-6 Classes of GSSs = 409
    • 14-6-1 Input Devices Classification = 409
    • 14-6-2 Geographic Classification = 412
    • 14-7 GroupWare : An Overview = 414
    • 14-8 GroupWare Classification = 415
    • 14-8-1 Types of Group Meetings = 415
    • 14-8-2 Types of Software 417
    • 14-9 Web-Based GSSs = 418
    • 14-10 Advantages and Disadvantages of Teleconferencing and Other GSSs = 419
    • 14-11 GSSs in Action = 420
    • 14-11-1 Burr-Brown Corporation = 420
    • 14-11-2 Texaco, Incorporated = 421
    • 14-11-3 Department of Indian Health Services (IHS), Tucson = 421
    • 14-11-4 International Business Machines = 422
    • 14-11-5 Price Waterhouse = 423
    • 14-12 Software Support for a GSS = 424
    • Summary = 424
    • Review Questions = 424
    • Projects = 428
    • Key Terms = 429
    • References = 429
    • Chapter 15 Geographic Information Systems
    • Learning Objectives = 431
    • 15-1 Introduction = 432
    • 15-2 What Is a Geographic Information System (GIS)? = 432
    • 15-3 Components of a Geographic Information System = 434
    • 15-4 Developing a Successful GIS = 441
    • 15-4-1 Needs Assessment = 441
    • 15-4-2 Cost and Benefit Analysis = 443
    • 15-4-3 Choosing the Right Platform = 445
    • 15-4-4 Implementation = 447
    • 15-5 GIS Applications : An Overview = 449
    • 15-5-1 Marketing = 450
    • 15-5-2 Transportation = 451
    • 15-5-3 Insurance = 451
    • 15-5-4 Real Estate = 452
    • 15-5-5 Government = 453
    • 15-5-6 Emerging Applications = 454
    • 15-6 Outlook for GISs = 455
    • Summary = 456
    • Review Questions = 456
    • Projects = 457
    • Key Terms = 458
    • References = 458
    • Chapter 16 Multimedia and Virtual Reality Information Systems
    • Learning Objectives = 461
    • 16-1 Introduction = 462
    • 16-2 Multimedia : An Overview = 462
    • 16-3 Multimedia Historical Development = 464
    • 16-4 Multimedia Applications = 466
    • 16-4-1 Multimedia Presentation = 466
    • 16-4-2 Sales Demos = 468
    • 16-4-3 Information Kiosks = 468
    • 16-4-4 Computer-Based Training (CBT) = 469
    • 16-4-5 Interactive Television = 469
    • 16-5 Strengths and Limitations of Multimedia Training = 471
    • 16-6 Hypertext Systems = 472
    • 16-6-1 Hypermedia = 472
    • 16-7 Virtual Reality (VR) : An Overview = 474
    • 16-8 Types of Virtual Environments = 475
    • 16-9 Components of a VR System = 476
    • 16-10 Important Concepts in VR Environments = 477
    • 16-11 VR Applications = 478
    • 16-12 Obstacles in Using VR Systems = 480
    • 16-13 Virtual Legality = 480
    • Summary = 481
    • Review Questions = 481
    • Projects = 482
    • Key Terms = 482
    • References = 482
    • Part Ⅴ Emerging Technologies and Applications in the Information Systems Environment
    • Chapter 17 Applied Artificial Intelligence : What Is Really Involved?
    • Learning Objectives = 487
    • 17-1 Introduction = 488
    • 17-2 What Is Artificial Intelligence? = 488
    • 17-3 General Problems Associated with AI Technologies = 489
    • 17-4 How Do We Measure Intelligence? = 491
    • 17-4-1 The Alan Turing Test = 491
    • 17-4-2 The Chinese Room Experiment = 492
    • 17-4-3 The CYC Project = 493
    • 17-5 What Is an Expert System? = 493
    • 17-6 Survey of Successful Applications of Expert Systems = 496
    • 17-7 Components of an Expert System = 499
    • 17-8 Three Technologies of an Expert System = 503
    • 17-9 Types of Expert Systems Architectures = 505
    • 17-10 Application and Nonapplication Situations of Expert Systems = 507
    • 17-11 Decision-Making Settings and Computer Technology Support = 508
    • 17-12 Decision Support and Artificial Intelligence Integration = 510
    • 17-13 Has Integration Already Started? = 512
    • Summary = 514
    • Review Questions = 514
    • Projects = 515
    • Key Terms = 515
    • References = 516
    • Chapter 18 Expert Systems Construction : Putting Theory to Work
    • Learning Objectives = 519
    • 18-1 Introduction = 520
    • 18-2 The Knowledge Acquisition Process = 520
    • 18-3 Steps in the Knowledge Acquisition Process = 521
    • 18-3-1 Selected Knowledge Acquisition Techniques = 523
    • 18-4 Knowledge Representation : An Overview = 524
    • 18-4-1 Selected Knowledge Representation Techniques = 526
    • 18-5 Expert Systems Construction : An Overview = 528
    • 18-6 Expert Systems Construction : From the Beginning to the End = 529
    • 18-6-1 Problem Definition = 529
    • 18-6-2 Organizational Readiness = 533
    • 18-6-3 Expert Selection = 533
    • 18-6-4 Tool Selection = 534
    • 18-6-5 Design Team Selection = 536
    • 18-6-6 Prototype Design = 536
    • 18-6-7 Final Construction = 537
    • 18-6-8 Validation = 540
    • 18-6-9 Postimplementation Audit = 541
    • 18-7 Selected Examples of ES Shells = 542
    • 18-8 Important Considerations for Expert Systems Construction = 543
    • 18-9 Future Trends in Expert Systems = 544
    • Summary = 546
    • Review Questions = 546
    • Projects = 547
    • Key Term = 548
    • References = 548
    • Chapter 19 Fuzzy Logic and Hybrid Systems : Managing Imprecise Data
    • Learning Objectives = 551
    • 19-1 Introduction = 552
    • 19-2 Background for Fuzzy Logic = 552
    • 19-3 Fuzzy Logic Terminology = 554
    • 19-4 What Is Fuzzy Logic? = 555
    • 19-5 Fuzziness versus Probability = 556
    • 19-6 Implementing a Fuzzy System = 557
    • 19-7 Advantages of Fuzzy Systems = 559
    • 19-7-1 Simplicity = 559
    • 19-7-2 Contradiction = 559
    • 19-7-3 Reducing Development Time and Increasing Flexibility = 560
    • 19-7-4 System Autonomy = 560
    • 19-7-5 Reduced Costs = 560
    • 19-7-6 User Friendliness = 560
    • 19-8 Fuzzy Logic Shortcomings = 561
    • 19-9 Fuzzy Logic Hybrids : Integrating the Strengths of Complementary Systems = 562
    • 19-9-1 Neural Networks = 562
    • 19-9-2 Expert Systems = 562
    • 19-9-3 Genetic Algorithms = 563
    • 19-10 Fuzzy Logic Applications = 565
    • 19-10-1 Microelectronics = 566
    • 19-10-2 Transportation = 566
    • 19-10-3 Government = 566
    • 19-10-4 Home Appliances = 566
    • 19-10-5 Robotics and Appliances = 567
    • 19-10-6 Financial Management = 567
    • 19-10-7 Database Management Systems = 568
    • 19-10-8 Systems Development = 568
    • 19-10-9 Software Development = 569
    • 19-10-10 Decision Support = 569
    • 19-11 The Outlook for Fuzzy Logic = 570
    • 19-11-1 Forces Influencing Fuzzy Logic Development = 571
    • 19-11-2 Training and Support for Fuzzy Logic = 571
    • 19-11-3 Payoff in Fuzzy Logic Development = 571
    • Summary = 572
    • Review Questions = 572
    • Projects = 573
    • Key Terms = 573
    • References = 574
    • Chapter 20 Neural Networks : Computers That Learn by Doing
    • Learning Objectives = 575
    • 20-1 Introduction = 576
    • 20-2 Neural Computing : An Overview = 576
    • 20-3 Neural Computing versus Digital Computing = 577
    • 20-4 Expert Systems versus Neural Networks = 579
    • 20-5 Pattern Recognition : An Overview = 580
    • 20-5-1 Optical Pattern Recognition = 581
    • 20-5-2 Sound Pattern Recognition = 581
    • 20-5-3 Additional Forms of Pattern Recognition = 582
    • 20-5-4 Recognizing Patterns in Data = 582
    • 20-5-5 Recognizing Hidden Patterns = 583
    • 20-6 How Neural Networks Work : An Overview = 584
    • 20-6-1 Hardware Aspects = 586
    • 20-6-2 Layered Architecture = 586
    • 20-6-3 Input Layer = 588
    • 20-6-4 Middle Layers = 588
    • 20-6-5 Output Layer = 589
    • 20-7 Learning in Neural Networks : An Overview = 589
    • 20-7-1 Training Neural Networks = 590
    • 20-7-2 Adaptive Learning in Neural Networks = 591
    • 20-7-3 Supervised Training = 592
    • 20-7-4 Unsupervised Training = 592
    • 20-8 The Advantages of Neural Networks = 593
    • 20-9 The Disadvantages of Neural Networks = 594
    • 20-10 Applications of Neural Networks : An Overview = 594
    • 20-11 Neural Networks in Action = 595
    • 20-12 Outlook for Neural Computing = 595
    • 20-13 Selected Neural Networks Products and Services = 596
    • Summary = 597
    • Review Questions = 598
    • Projects = 598
    • Key Terms = 599
    • References = 599
    • Chapter 21 Natural Language Processing : The Ultimate User/System Interface
    • Learning Objectives = 601
    • 21-1 Introduction = 602
    • 21-2 Natural Language Processing (NLP) : An Overview = 603
    • 21-3 Advantages of NLP = 606
    • 21-4 Problems with Natural Language Processing = 606
    • 21-5 Natural Language Input and Output Technologies = 608
    • 21-5-1 Voice Recognition = 609
    • 21-5-2 Speech Generation = 611
    • 21-5-3 Handwriting Recognition = 612
    • 21-5-4 Body Language = 612
    • 21-5-5 Machine Vision = 613
    • 21-6 Natural Language-Understanding Systems = 614
    • 21-6-1 Syntax Analysis = 615
    • 21-6-2 Semantic Analysis = 615
    • 21-6-3 Pragmatic Analysis = 615
    • 21-7 How a NLP Works = 616
    • 21-8 Different Parsing Approaches = 617
    • 21-8-1 Pattern-Matching Parsing = 618
    • 21-8-2 Grammar-Based Parsing = 618
    • 21-8-3 Semantic Parsing = 619
    • 21-8-4 Knowledge-Based Parsing = 620
    • 21-8-5 Neural Network Parsing = 621
    • 21-9 Parsing Techniques = 621
    • 21-10 Natural Language Interfaces = 622
    • 21-10-1 Intellect = 623
    • 21-10-2 Q & A = 624
    • 21-10-3 DOSTALK = 624
    • 21-10-4 Other Products = 624
    • 21-11 Machine Translation = 626
    • 21-11-1 LOGOS = 626
    • 21-11-2 PC-Based Systems = 626
    • 21-11-3 ALPS = 627
    • 21-12 Document-Understanding Systems = 628
    • 21-12-1 Writer's Workbench = 628
    • 21-12-2 Smart Expert Editor = 629
    • Summary = 630
    • Review Questions = 630
    • Projects = 631
    • Key Terms = 632
    • References = 632
    • Index = 635