18ㆍ19세기 屯田에 있어서 屯民의 抵抗과 定摠制의 채택
During the 18th and 19th centuries, the peasants assigned to or located at the garrison farms throughout the Chosun society were starting to stand up and violently resist to the taxation pressures inflicted upon them by the government, while the Gun-amun military divisions were also beginning to respond to this situation with not that friendly means as well. In this research, the nature and continuation of those conflicts, along with the ramifications they caused, will all be examined to assess the overall situation of the garrison farm operations in this time period.
What should be noted is that, underlying the various changes of land ownerships or operation styles at the time were the unwavering faith and efforts of the garrison farm peasants who were trying to break away from the government's oppressive land control. Their efforts were initially targeted at taxes reduction, but the real objective was to secure legal ownership over the garrison farm lands which they were cultivating and managing, to the effect of establishing an actual ownership.
Those conflicts which involved the garrison farm ownerships and operations, clearly reveal to us that the garrison farm administration was reaching a turning point in this time period, as the governmental offices were losing authority over these particular land units which they officially owned for centuries, due to the resistance activities of the lower-class peasants and local landlords. Eventually the garrison farm lands were to be continually transformed into ordinary land units as conflicts continued, because the people responsible for the actual cultivation efforts continued to gain more and more momentum, enough to claim the land they were cultivating to be the land of their own.
As a result of the continuous resistance on the peasants' part, the pressure of taxation gradually decreased, and as the military divisions were continually losing their authorities and ownerships over the garrison farms, the farms started to be gradually transformed into ordinary land units. Threatened by series of economical changes engineered under the joint effort of the local officials and local influentials, the military divisions realized they were facing financial crises, and tried to level the playground by implementing a new taxation method, which required fixed amount of taxes to be submitted regardless of the agricultural conditions or yield status of the year, and required the Eup(邑) units to submit the entirety of their taxes simultaneously, and not separately. This new taxation method was called the Jeongchong-jae(定摠制) administration.
This new method was undoubtedly designed to allow the military divisions to secure fixed amount of income, regardless of the ownership instabilities which were becoming quite apparent. But the new method was applied to the taxation process under the supervision of the local officials, and the Myeon, Ri local units as taxation units were under the distinct influences of the local influentials. So the military divisions still had to face the continuous resistance from the local officials and influentials who were trying to reduce the taxation. In response, the military divisions also managed to find a way to indirectly retaliate to these resistance by simply not releasing any needed amount of relief items. Unlike the ordinary lands which the Ministry of Taxation had the authority to distribute relief material, the distribution of relief material to the people attached to the garrison farms were under the authority of the military divisions.
But as time went on, the implementation of this new method only carne to serve as a glaring proof that the land-owners(the military divisions) were no longer in total control of the taxation process. In fact the military divisions were in a defensive position here. Absolute ownerships over the garrison farms were being already broken down everywhere, and the taxation process was no longer based
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