유럽이념의 형성과 유럽통합구상 = A Study of the Formation of European Idea and the Scheme for European Integration
조원홍 (육사3사관학교 교수부 군사사학과)
The idea of European integration was not espoused only after the end of W. W. Ⅱ, but it has a long historical background. In 1306 Pierre Dubois(ca. 1250/55-1320), who analyzed the cause of the failure of The Crusade Movement from 11th to 13th century in his booklet, ?De recuperatione terrae sanctae?, argued that the Christendom of the West should form a strong political solidarity or 'Union' rather than the military alliance among European nations, when Europe embarked on war again against the Islamic forces for rehabilitation of the forfeited holy land, Jerusalem from the Saracens. He estimated the lack of political coordination among European nations going to the Crusade War, and its corollary military inefficancy was a real cause of the defeat in the battle against the Arabic Muslems in the middle ages.
After the final breakdown of the Byzantine Empire in 1453 by the tenacious attacks of the Islamic Turks for about two centuries, a few Europeanists since then began to feel keenly the necessity of political union or integration among European nations in order to defend the Christian world of Europe from the aggression of Islamic forces and to preserve its cultural and religious identity.
In this milieu of campaigns against the Islamic forces from the middle of 15th century onwards, the ?idea of Europe?(=die Europaische Idee), that Europe has consisted of homogeneous cultural unit and as its result sustained a confirmed identity from the ancient times in spite of its political difference and diversity, was widely permeated among European intellectuals.
In the perspective of European integration history, W. W. Ⅰ. and in particular W. W. Ⅱ. marked a decisive moment, in which the European protagonists(Europaer) such as Winstone Churchill, Jean Monnet, Robert Schuman, (K)Conrad Adenauer, and Belgian premier Paul-Henri Spaak etc., who suffered the miserable rule of egoistic nationalism and its inevitable aftermath of totalitarian regime, and witnessed the horrible sights of the first and second world war, immediately after the end of W. W. Ⅱ got down to the task of establishing an integrated European organization. They, at first directly attempted to build a federal European political community via the common foreign and safety policy(CFSP) and through the construction of European Defense Community(EDC) as well, but such a short road to the European political community soon met impasse owing to the national egoism, as was seen in the frustration of the Pleven plan and its succeeding one of EDC in 1955.
Therefore, the key personality of ?European Founding Fathers? and an inventor of pooling system of management and trasportation of the Franco-English military supplies during the first world war, Jean Monnet(1888~1979) adopted an indirect method, namely 'a sector approach' or 'gradual and functional approach', to establish an European Community. He convinced that ?there would be no peace in Europe, if the states were reconstituted on the basis of national sovereignty?, and drafted a revolutionry proposal with a few collaborators to pool, under the control of European government, the strategic Franco-German resources of coal and steel. On 9 May 1950, the French foreign minister, Robert Schuman, assented to Monnet's proposal, proclaimed ?The Declaration of Schuman Plan?, which aimed to found the European Coal and Steel Community(ECSC). And this project was indeed one year later accomplished with the Treaty of Paris concluded with six ECSC member countries(France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemburg).
And in 1957 with the Rome Treaty, the European Economic Community(EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community(Euratiom) were also established among ECSC member countries by the sole audacious activities of Jean Monnet.
In addition to these processes of European integration, ECSC, EEC, and Euratom were integrated into European Community(EC) with the Merger Treaty signed in 1965 and ratified in 1967, and by ratification of EC treaty in 1967 the first stage of European integration, European economic unification was de facto completed, although it had not yet reached the final stage of European Monetary Union(EMU).
On 18 February 1986 by coming into force of the Single European Act(SEA), which provided useful measures for development of economic community of twelve EC member countries and adopted the common foreign and safety policy(CFSP) as a regular agenda of European Political Cooperation(EPC), the step going to the political community of Europe became faster, and at last on 7 February 1992 through frequent conferences of Council of Europe(=Europaischer Rat), the Maastreet Treaty was signed with EC member countries to form the European Union(EU), i.e. the first European political community.
EU is composed of three pillars of EC, CFSP, and common internal and legal policy(=Innen-und Rechtspolitik[JIZ]). And after the birth of EU in 1992, fifteen EU member countries have tried to enforce the political function of EU and to enlarge the member countries of EU, and so on 7 October 1997, by the conclusion of Treaty of Amsterdam, EU could amend its some political dys-function, and on 11 December 2000, with the endorsement of Treaty of Nice, EU could enlarge its member countries to 25 until the beginning of April 2004, and besides EU is now coordinating the Draft of EU Constitution by the end of May 2004, which under former French president Giscard D'stang's guidance, was made at the ?Convention on the future of Europe?and aimed at building of 'federal' system of unified Europe.
As such the future of EU seems very bright and promising in spite of slight frictions between England and other EU member countries.
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