高麗 詩歌의 硏究 = A STUDY ON POETIC SONGS OF KORYO PERIOD
The aim of this dissertation is to inquire into the Korean poetic songs made or sung in Koryo period, and to reveal the names, the classification, the form and the transition process of genre for the Korean poetic songs via philological, empirical, and other methods.
It seems that the re were lots of poetic songs in Koryo Period. However, the works which were handed down up to now are onl y 13 pieces of Hyang-ga, 16 pieces of Koryo-kayo and a few pieces of Sijo. Because there were no Korean letter to write freely at that time, and besides. the intellectuals of that period regarded poetic songs made in Korean language as something vulgar.
I include even those works not remaining today into the subject matter of the study. The consequences of the study can be summarized as follows.
1) It is erroneous to say that Hyang-ga had already disappeared in Koryo period, as many scholars contend. For there had been writers and works of Hyang-ga until later Koryo period. (2- 2) Therefore I think that Hyang- ga had been sung until later Koryo period.
2) No agreement has yet been made on the origin of Si-jo among scholars, but I think that Hyang- ga was changed into Si-jo. I have the opinion that after the transition, Si-jo exist ed together with Hyang- ga by the end of Koryo period. For it is proved that original form of Si-jo is to be found out of "Silla Choyongga" part in "Koryo Choyongga."(2--3--3, 2-3-4)
3) Korean poetic songs in Koryo period have bee. named variously such as "Sokga," "Sok-yo," "Kyong-gi-chega," "Kyong-gi-hayoga" etc. But these names don't represent the characteristics of Korean poetic songs in Koryo in full measure. (3-1)
4) Korean poetic songs are characterized by "refrain." If a song has a refrain, it continues in several stanzas, and if not, it ends in one stanza. I call the former "Yon- ga" ( continuing song), the latter, Hyang- ga.(3-1-6)
5) Many scholars have called Korean poetic songs as "Sok-ga" or "Kyong-gi-chega," but I regard them as "Yon- ga." Because they are connected in several stanzas followed by "refrain."(3-1-6)
6) Instead, such poetic songs as "Samo-kok", "Lees ang- kok" and "Man jonchun-Byolsa" are all Hyang- ga. Because they end in one stanza without refrain. (2-2-1)
7) Refrains can form a verse. And one-retrain-verse developed into two, three-and four- refrain verse. In practice. however, examples of three- or four-verse refrains are very rare.(3-3)
8) I put emphasis on "refrain." Based on the principle of unity, refrain is the standard by which all Korean poetic songs in Koryo period are classified. So Hyang- ga, Yon- ga and even so-called Sok- ga and Kyong- gi- chega can all be c1assified based on whether they have refrain or not and if they have refrain, they have one-refrain-verse or two-refrain-verse.(3-2)
9) Many scholars regard Korean poetic songs in Koryo period as either ballad or song of royal palace. But I think both forms of song were existed in that period. Part of ballads were sung in royal palace and the rest of them were sung by ordinary people, I think. By the way, In the course of ballad's introduction into royal palace, the words most probably have been changed ani must have been influenced by foreign music or songs. (And in this period, ballads are believed to have been considerably refined because of refrain.) (3-3-2)
10) In sum, Korean poetic songs made or sung in Koryo period can be classifie into the following two major categories.
(1) Hyang-ga, ending in one stanza not followed by refrain.
(2) Yon-ga, continuing in several stanzas followed by refrain.
And Yon- ga in turn can be classified into two types of songs :
(1) One-refrain-verse songs (so-called "Sok-ga")
(2) Two-refrain-verse songs (so-called "Kyong- gi- chega)
In this sense, in concluding remarks, the history of Korean poetic songs in Koryo period should be written in renewal. (4)
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