일제하 조선에서 야스쿠니신사의 표상과 조선인 합사자 = The Yasukuni Shrine, Korea and Korean under the Japanese Imperialistic Rule
This research aims to explore Korean people`s perspective to the Yasukuni shrine(靖國神社) in the Japanese Colonial Period. The term “the Yasukuni shrine” was accepted as a symbol of “Chung Kwun Ae Kwuk(忠 君愛國, loyalty and patriotism)” by Japanese people for its imperial past. So, in Japan it was one of the most important units of elementary school textbooks in those days. However, it was treated carefully in Japan`s colony Korea, in which The Constitution of the Empire of Japan was not in force. For example, only Japanese children studied the meaning of its meaning, excluding Korean children. Korean people could not enter in the army, and hence they could not die for the emperor of Japan. Korean people were familiar with resistance rather than loyalty due to the military government in 1910s. The first Korean`s body was installed in the Yasukuni shrine April in 1920. The body of several Korean military policemen and military policeman assistants were laid in the middle of 1920s. Those people died as they quelled the Samil Independence Movement of Korea or coerced Korean fighters for national independence. In 1920s, Korean national movements for independence increased. So, it was emotionally impossible to think deeply over the meaning of the enshrinement in the Yasukuni shrine or to put this enshrinement on the textbook in Korea. In 1930s policemen in Korea were also enshrined to the Yasukuni shrine besides the existing military policemen. They were in charge of general public security. Further, they were boarder garrisons on the Aplok and the Tuman Riversides, and their enemies were mainly an army for national independence, disparaged as “bandit”. The body of the boarder garrisons was laid in the shrine after 1933 as police officers were recognized as people who sacrifice their life “for Japan and the emperor of Japan, together with soldiers”. At that time, the body of Korean police officers was installed in the shrine. The Joseon Government-general paper stressed that Japanese people can die for Japan and the emperor of Japan. For the first time, the Yasukuni shrine was carefully taken up by the revised elementary school textbook in Japanese colony Korea. For example, the title “Cho Hon Jae(招 魂祭, A memorial service for the war dead)”, one of units of the textbook, focuses on a memorial service rather than the enshrinement in the Yasukuni shrine. This is because it was difficult to teach the enshrinement in the Yasukuni shrine in the schools in Korea in that installed in the shrine was the body of police officers who had coerced Korean fighters for national independence. Therefore, Korean people in the Japanese colony Korea could not understand the meaning of the Yasukuni shrine clearly. The Joseon Government general`s perspective to the Yasukuni shrine changed suddenly as the Sino Japanese War burst out July in 1937. The war spread throughout Asia and was expended to the Pacific War. This made it impossible for Japan to carry out the war with their human resources in Japan. The government general forced Korean people to accept “Nay Seon Il Chae(內鮮一體, the idea that Japan and Korea (or Joseon) are one flesh)” and to recognize as theirs the issue of the Yasukuni shrine. In those days, many of Korean civilians attached to the Japanese army due to family circumstances died in a war and their remains were laid in the Yasukuni shrine together with other Japanese colleagues. The press under the Joseon Government-general`s control propagandized the Yasukuni shrine`s temporal great religious service as a ceremony Korean people had to perform together with Japanese, and it prepared a list of names whose corpses were installed in the Yasukuni shrine. The institutions of education in Korea actively taught the Yasukuni shrine, differently from former days. In particular, they crammed the students` head with Japanese view of life and death after the education instructions in Korea was revised again in 1938. This means that people who died for the emperor of Japan can have an eternal life. The instructions make emphasis on Nay Seon Il Chae and define as an enemy the anti Japanese force against the Korean people whose body were laid in the Yasukuni shrine. The use of the term Nay Seon Il Chae became useless as Korean people who volunteered for, or were attached to, the Japanese army whose bodies were installed in the Yasukuni shrine were on the increase. Therefore, a term of Korean disappeared and the expression “Let`s gather in the Yasukuni shrine!” became Japanese people`s duty.더보기
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