대학생 흡연자의 금연경험에 따른 건강신념차이 = A study on the health belief difference of smoking cessation of university smokers
It has been generally known that smoking is one of the worst factor increasing disease and mortality in human health since in 1950's and nowadays.
But regardless of various proofs about social or economical problems due to smoking, current smoking rate has not been decreased in our country. Until now, most of tobacco use and its addiction researches have been focused on the adolescent or adult women smokers not on the university students.
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate smoking cessation of university smokers and analyze the health belief-perceived sensitivity, severity, benefits and barriers- difference, then to provide basic data for effective smoking cessation strategy for university smokers.
The subjects were comprised of 181 university smokers from 15 universities in Seoul.
The data were collected by structured questionaires. The questionaires were designed to measure general characteristics, smoking cessation and health belief, based on Ahn(2003)'s result on the Study of Smoking attitude, Behavior and Smoking Cessation of Adult Male and Lee(1987)'s result on Relationships Between the Health Belief Model and Smoking Habits.
The data were collected from May 5 to 16. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS program. The actual number, percentiles, means, standard deviation, t-test and ANOVA were done.
The result of this study were as follows;
1. The general characteristics of the subjects of this study
The range of age was from 18 to 34 and the averaging age was 23. The subjects of this study were 141 males and 40 females.
The religions were Christianity 25.4%(46), Buddhism 12.7%(23), Catholic 23.2%(42), no religion 37.0%(67). The residential forms were living with family 59.1%(107), cooking food for oneself 28.7%(52), dormitory 5.0%(9), boarding house 1.7%(3).
Smoking starting age were university 43.1 %(78), high school 29.8%(54), middle school 14.9%(27), in the army 6.1 %(11), elementary school 1.1 %(2).
2. The smoking cessation of the subjects
80% of current smokers showed quitting smoking decision and 20% have not tried. The frequency of quitting smoking decision were from 1 to above 8 and mean was 3.06.
As for smoking cessation plan, 54.7%(99) current smokers answered yes, 3.9%(7) said no, 35.4%(64) had no idea and 6.1 %(11) didn't answer.
As for the reason of never quitting smoking decision, 71.42%(25 among total 35) have no need to quit smoking and the others said difficulty of smoking cessation.
As for the main reason of smoking cessation decision, 54.7%(99) answered for the health, 7.2%(13) family advice, 15.5%(28) girl/boy friend's advice, 1.7%(3) to save money.
As for the reason to fail smoking cessation, 56.7%(68) were will-lack, 17.5%(21) stress, 15%(18) smoking mood, 10%(12) withdrawl symptom.
As for the smoking cessation method, 85.0%(125) were oneself-will, 2.7%(4) way acquired by mass-media, 2%(3) doctor's prescription, 2%(3) religion's help, 0.7%(1) smoking cessation school.
As for the difficulty in smoking cessation, 42.2%(62) were drinking meeting, 23.1 %(34) no alternative of stress release, 12.2%(18) withdrawl symptom, 11.6%(17) having nothing to do, 7.5%(11) friend's encouragement.
As for the most difficult cigarette to quit, 67.8%(99) were all-day smoking except the first smoking in the morning, 32.2%(47) the first smoking in the morning.
3. Health belief as for general characteristics
Gender - The total point in benefits showed higher in male(28.5177) than female(26.6750). There was significant difference(t=.778, p<.05). The total point in health belief showed higher in male (105.8298) than female(l00.5000). So there was significant difference(t=.345, p<.05).
Age - There was significant difference in benefits between age(10's-25.83, 20's-28.39, 30's-32.00)(F=3.73, p<.05).
Smoking starting age - There was significant difference in total point of sensitivity and health belief(sensitivity F=4.00, p<.Ol, health belief F=2.843, p<.05). As for sensitivity, subjects who started smoking in the army showed the highest(33.36) and ones in high school showed the lowest(26.96). The total point in health belief showed the highest in elementary school(l19.00) and the lowest in high school(100.98).
4. Health belief as for smoking cessation
There was significant difference in health belief as for smoking cessation(t=0.189, p=0.OO2).
Sensitivity point showed higher in smoking quitting trial smokers(29.2) than non-trial smoker (26.9).
Severity point showed higher in trial smokers (30.7) than non-trial smokers(28.9).
Benefit point showed higher in trial smokers(28.6) than non-trial smokers(26.2).
There was no significant difference in barriers point.
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