韓國企業의 對中國 技術移轉 決定要因에 관한 硏究 = (A) study on the determinants of technology transfer by Korean firms to China
In general, advanced countries are capable of developing technologies that can meet economic, social, and market demands through accumulated technological capabilities and indigenous research and development; when importing foreign technologies, they can easily digest and improve them and eventually developing industrially applicable technologies that dovetail market demands and strengthen their technology development ability based upon them. However, for most of the developing countries, imported technologies account for major part of their industrial development due to the limitations of technology development resources and the lack of indigenous technology development capability, which covers basic science, applicable technology, and industrial technology.
Technology transfer has become an important means of international economic activity for companies in advanced countries; however, for developing countries, it is of importance as a platform for industrial development.
In case of Korea, technology trade has been brought to attention in recent years. In particular, after the recession under the supervision of the IMF, technology trade drew great attention with the recognition that practical technology development rather than blind development should be done.
Since its innovative open-up policy, China's rapid economic growth is looming as threat to the international economy as well as Korea's economy. One of the main elements of the economic development is the government's promotion of technology import from advanced countries or multinational companies through foreign direct investment or contracts. Lots of multinational companies have already completed technology transfer to China. In response to China's open-up policy, Korea has been transferring vast areas of technologies to China; the increase of technology transfer to China is bringing about diverse problems, such as technology leakage of Korea's core technology and bridging of industrial technology level between the two countries. At this juncture, it is important to import advanced technology and develop indigenous technology for Korean companies' global strategy; however, no less important is to strategically export Korea's technology.
When we look at the Korean technology trade as of 2006, technology export amounted to $1,897 million and technology import $4,838 million, which left $2,941 million deficit in trade balance. Korean companies' technology export to China has increased by 3.8 times from $186 million in 2001 to $719 million in 2006. Korean companies' technology transfer to China is at an increasing rate and the damage they get from technology leakage has become a serious issue. However, academic research on the subject matter is few and far between. Existing research on technology transfer dealt mostly with literature review, case study or mere analysis on domestic technology transfer policy and system among industry, academia, and research institutes. In particular, this sort of research on China is very few; existing research include multinational companies' R&D investment, analysis of technology, and Korea-China technology transfer model transfer. This study, however, aims to come up with the elements that have influence on the outcomes of technology transfer in a multi-divisional way by making analysis of the interactive relations among technology transfer factor, technology transfer procedure factors, and technology transfer outcome factors through the Structural Equation Model(SEM).
To this end, this research employed following methods and analysis.
This research looked into the overall status and problems of the types, methods, and rewards of technology transfer through literature review and analysis of Korean companies' technology transfer to China. At the same time, it employed survey to analyze the determining factor; for statistical analysis, it employed Structural Equation Model(SEM), which is a cause and effect analysis. And the sample companies are restricted to the ones that have the records of technology transfer to China for the past five years; research scope was limited to technology transfer factors, technology transfer procedure factors, and technology transfer outcomes. For research model, technology success factor model of Choi and Lee (2000) and technology receptive capability and technology transfer outcome model of Lin, Tan and Chang(2002) were adopted. The research model was divided into an external variable, technology transfer factors and an internal variables, technology transfer procedure factors and technology transfer outcome factors. Research hypothesis was divided into technology transfer factors and technology transfer procedure factors; and technology transfer outcomes. In particular, it investigated the direct/indirect factors that affect technology transfer outcomes by employing interactive procedure between the two countries and receptive capability as mediating variable in the internal variable. It also analyzed the direct effect of technology transfer factors, which is an external variable, on technology transfer outcomes.
For detailed means of analysis to achieve the research objectives, frequency analysis were conducted to investigate the status of Korean companies' technology transfer to China; credibility analysis and probing factor analysis were also carried out to ascertain the credibility and rationale of the survey. Confirming factor analysis was conducted for the variables proven at the probing factor analysis. And the research hypothesis was done through interrelation analysis and structural equation model analysis targeting the variables except for the ones eliminated in the confirming factor analysis. The outcomes of the analysis is as follows:
First, in terms of the size, SMEs are more frequent than large companies, and more industrial commodities than consumer commodities. In terms of the type of technology transfer, licensing has the largest number and in terms of the mode, technology service is the most common. Korean firms in general feel the necessity of technology transfer; however, most of them do not have a department solely committed to the task. For development stage, technologies associated with completed products have the highest number, and for technology duration, mature period is the highest. The analysis found out that the hardest thing in the procedure of technology transfer is to identify potential buyer and the government's role is to devise tax incentives and financial support.
Second, credibility analysis and probing factor analysis were carried out to ascertain the credibility and rationale of the survey. Credibility of this survey was pronounced as high and probing element analysis was turned out to be reliable except for a few items.
Third, before the structural equation model analysis, a cause and effect relation analysis, confirming factor analysis was made. As a result of probing element analysis variables not suitable were eliminated; variables used in confirming factor analysis are 4 items in environmental characteristics, 4 items in technology characteristics, 4 in organizational characteristics, 3 in interrelations, 3 in receptive capability, and 5 in technology transfer outcome. As a result of confirming factor analysis, a total of 3 in external variable, 2 in technological characteristics and 1 in organizational characteristics, was eliminated because their factor loadings(λ) were lower than 0.45.
Fourth, interrelation analysis was made using the newly acquired through confirming analysis. As a result, technological characteristics were not related to receptive capability, organizational characteristics were not related to interrelation, and receptive capability was not related to technology transfer outcome. Rest of the factors turned out to be relevant.
Fifth, as a result of reviewing research hypothesis on the factors that determine Korean companies' technology transfer to China, 6 out of 9 were adopted and 3 were dropped. If we look into the adopted hypothesis, environmental characteristics were selected because they have a secondary effect on interrelation, receptive capability, and technology transfer outcome factors. Technological characteristics were selected because they have a primary effect on interrelation and technology transfer outcome; however, they were dropped because they did not have any effect on receptive capability. Organizational characteristics were selected because they have a primary effect on receptive capability and technology transfer outcome; however, they were dropped because they did not have any effect on interrelation. Interrelation, an internal variable was selected because it has a primary effect on both receptive capability and technology transfer outcome, and receptive capability was dropped because it did not have effect on technology transfer outcome. It turned out that the factors determining Korean companies' technology transfer to China include cultural difference of environmental characteristics, mode of technological characteristics, firms' capability of organizational characteristics, and mutual trust of each country.
This research aimed at drawing out the factors that determine Korean companies' technology transfer to China. As a result of analysis, cultural difference associated with technology transfer, technology type, corporate capability, and mutual trust have an effect on the outcomes of technology transfer. The followings are the expected outcomes of this research:
First, China's recent economic growth has a substantial influence on international economy, and the technology transfer of Korean companies as well as multinational companies to China is increasing. Given that, this research will serve as a point of reference for those companies that seek technology transfer or the government in policy-making.
Second, in order for Korean companies to expedite technology transfer, it is imperative that they establish a department and foster human resources solely committed to the task, and thus government's supportive measures, such as tax incentives, financial support, and overall support center, are necessary.
Third, existing research associated with technology transfer were merely literature review or case studies. In particular, research on technology transfer to China is very poor. This research is of significance in that it has come up with the factors that determine technology transfer to China through cause and effect relation analysis by employing a Structural Equation Model(SEM).
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